THE ETHICAL VIEWS BUSINESS LEADERS, UNIVERSITY FACULTY AND STUDENTS IN THE UNITED STATES

SELECT YEARS

1983 - 2003

 

FINAL DRAFT

 

BY

Ellen Sutor, Kathleen Casey and

Paul C. Thistlethwaite

Department of Marketing and Finance

Western Illinois University

Research Design Dynamics

Macomb, Il

DEVELOPED FOR THE AMERICAN NATIONAL BUSINESS HALL OF FAME BOARD

November 4, 2004

  TABLE OF CONTENTS  
  Contents Page
SECTION 1: EXECTUIVE SUMMARY iv
SECTION 2: INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY 1
SECTION 3: BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS OF ALL THREE GROUPS 7
SECTION 4: FOCUS ON ALL 3 GROUPS FOR 2003 ONLY 13
SECTION 5: FOCUS ON ONLY THE BUSINESS LEADERS FOR 2003 32
SECTION 6: FOCUS ON ONLY THE FACULTY FOR 2003 44
SECTION 7: FOCUS ON ONLY THE STUDENTS FOR 2003 55
SECTION 8: FOCUS ON ALL THREE GROUPS FOR ALL YEARS 67
SECTION 9: FOCUS ON BUSINESS LEADERS FOR THREE YEARS 93
SECTION 10: FOCUS ON FACULTY FOR TWO YEARS 109
SECTION 11: FOCUS ON STUDENTS FOR TWO YEARS 123
SECTION 12: APPENDICES 137
  APPENDIX A: FIRST PAGE OF THE EXCEL DATA FILE 138
  APPENDIX B: 1983 BUSINESS LEADER QUESTIONS 141
  APPENDIX C: 2003 BUSINESS LEADER QUESTIONNAIRE 148
  APPENDIX D: 2003 FACULTY QUESTIONNAIRE 151
  APPENDIX E: 2003 STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE 157

 

List of Tables
 
Table
Page
TABLE 2A. RESPONSE RATES FOR THE THREE BUSINESS LEADER STUDIES. 3
TABLE 2B. RESPONSE RATES FOR THE TWO FACULTY STUDIES 3
TABLE 2C. NUMBER OF STUDENTS FROM EACH UNIVERSITY 4
TABLE 2D. RESPONSE RATES FOR THE TWO STUDENT STUDIES 4
TABLE 2E. NUMBER OF QUESTIONS ASKED IN EACH SURVEY 5
TABLE 3A. PERCENT IN EACH GROUP HAVING TAKEN AN ETHICS OR MORAL
PHILOSOPHY COURSE
8
TABLE 3B. DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPONDING BUSINESS LEADERS 9
TABLE 3C. DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPONDING FACULTY 11
TABLE 3D. DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPONDING STUDENTS 12
TABLE 4A. PERCENT OF EACH OF THE THREE 2003 RESPONDING GROUPS AGREEING WITH EACH STATEMENT   (1=SA;  5=SD) 15
TABLE 4B. FOR ALL SEVEN YEARS, PERCENT OF EACH OF THE THREE GROUPS PROVIDING THEIR DEGREE OF AGREEMENT WITH EACH STATEMENT (1=SA;  5=SD) 25
TABLE 5A. PERCENT OF THE BUSINESS LEADERS IN 2003 AGREEING WITH EACH STATEMENT (1 = SA , 5=SD) 34
TABLE 5B. PERCENT OF THE BUSINESS LEADERS IN 2003 PROVIDING THEIR DEGREE OF AGREEMENT WITH EACH STATEMENT (1=SA;  5=SD) 39
TABLE 6A. PERCENT OF THE FACULTY IN 2003 AGREEING WITH EACH STATEMENT (1 = SA , 5=SD) 46
TABLE 6B. PERCENT OF THE FACULTY IN 2003 PROVIDING THEIR DEGREE OF AGREEMENT WITH EACH STATEMENT (1=SA;  5=SD) 50
TABLE 7A. PERCENT OF THE STUDENTS IN 2003 AGREEING WITH EACH STATEMENT (1=SA;  5=SD) 57
TABLE 7B. PERCENT OF THE STUDENTS IN 2003 PROVIDING THEIR DEGREE OF AGREEMENT WITH EACH STATEMENT (1=SA;  5=SD) 62
TABLE 8A. FOR ALL YEARS, PERCENT OF EACH OF THE RESPONDING GROUPS AGREEING WITH EACH STATEMENT (1=SA;  5=SD) 69
TABLE 8B. FOR ALL SEVEN YEARS, PERCENT OF EACH OF THE THREE GROUPS PROVIDING THEIR DEGREE OF AGREEMENT WITH EACH STATEMENT    (1=SA;  5=SD) 81
TABLE 9A. FOR EACH OF THE THREE STUDIES, PERCENT OF THE BUSINESS LEADERS AGREEING WITH EACH STATEMENT     (1=SA;  5=SD) 95
TABLE 9B. FOR EACH OF THE THREE STUDIES, PERCENT OF THE BUSINESS LEADERS PROVIDING THEIR DEGREE OF AGREEMENT WITH EACH STATEMENT (1=SA;  5=SD) 102
TABLE 10A. FOR EACH OF THE TWO STUDIES, PERCENT OF THE FACULTY AGREEING WITH EACH STATEMENT   (1=SA;  5=SD) 111
TABLE 10B. FOR EACH OF THESTWO STUDIES, PERCENT OF THE FACULTY PROVIDING THEIR DEGREE OF AGREEMENT WITH EACH STATEMENT (1=SA;  5=SD) 117
TABLE 11A. FOR EACH OF THE TWO STUDIES, PERCENT OF THE STUDENTS AGREEING WITH EACH STATEMENT   (1=SA;  5=SD) 125
TABLE 11B. FOR EACH OF THE TWO  STUDIES, PERCENT OF THE STUDENTS PROVIDING THEIR DEGREE OF AGREEMENT WITH EACH STATEMENT (1=SA;  5=SD) 131



SECTION 1:

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

 

 

BUSINESS LEADERS, FACULTY AND STUDENTS’ ETHICAL VIEWS:

 SELECTED YEARS

 1983 – 2003

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This study of business professionals, university faculty and college students provides insights into their ethical beliefs.  Not only can one compare the views of these three groups in late 2003, but the views can be compared to prior studies of the three groups.  Consequently, a very large amount of information has been provided in this report for the reader.  Trying to summarize the important findings will be left to the reader.  People interested in this study will have different perspectives and different research needs.  Please examine the information that you are interested in.  Do write about it.  Only one conference paper has been developed from the data thus far.  The American National Business Hall of Fame board members have received a file copy of this report, the SPSS data file, and an excel file containing results from an additional 189 students from University of Louisiana at Monroe and 84 students from the University of Oregon.  Other persons interested in the data may contact Richard Hattwick for the files at richardhattwick@bellsouth.net or (561) 676-8784

 

SECTION 2:

 

INTRODUCTION AND

 

METHODOLOGY

 

BUSINESS LEADERS, FACULTY AND STUDENTS’ ETHICAL VIEWS:

SELECTED YEARS, 1983 TO 2003

 

INTRODUCTION

The Illinois Hall of Fame began an intensive study of ethics in 1983 with a mail survey of randomly selected business leaders of America’s largest 10,000 corporations.  Other studies of other business leaders, university faculty and students were conducted in 1988, 1989 and 1995.  In order to obtain the views of these three groups in 2003, follow-up studies were commissioned by the Board of Directors of the American National Business Hall of Fame. Paul Thistlethwaite, president of Research Design Dynamics and Emeritus Professor of Marketing at WIU worked with two senior students in marketing, Ellen Sutor and Kathleen Casey to conduct the studies.  Several objectives guided the research.  In order to demonstrate these in this report, a strucu8tre was created that will facilitate the appropriate comparisons.
  1. To obtain updated information on each of the three groups.
  2. To compare the three groups’ opinions in 2003.
  3. To compare the 2003 opinions with the earlier four studies.
  4. To compare the 2003 business leaders’ opinions with those of 1988 and 1983.
  5. To compare the 2003 faculty members’ opinions with those of 1989.
  6. To compare the 2003 students’ opinions with those of 1995.
This report will be primarily a statistical report since so many different comparisons of groups are made.   Different persons can use the information to develop professional articles. 

METHODOLGY

In order to obtain the views of business leaders, faculty and students, three different methodologies were employed.  The business leaders and faculty were surveyed using the methodologies of the earlier studies.  The students’ opinions were gathered from several universities instead of just one; the methodology employed in the earlier studies.   The following two sections discuss the actual data collection procedures including response rates and the differences in the questionnaires. 

Business Leaders

The Hall of Fame has conducted three studies of business leaders.  All three surveyed random selections of organizations from the 10,000 largest in the U.S.  A mail survey was employed in each of these.   The appropriate respondent was the chief executive officer or the president.  Others were given the survey to respond to though.  The response rates for these studies are presented in Table 1. 

TABLE 2A.      RESPONSE RATES FOR THE THREE BUSINESS LEADER STUDIES.
  1983 * 1988  ** 2003
Population of interest      
Number Sent out 700 864 1445
Number of good responses 119 138 66
Response Rate 17 16  
Source:      2003 Study of Ethics      

*Hattwick, Richard, Bong-Gon P. Shin and Larry C. Wall (1984).  “Business  Ethics- Findings of a Survey of America’s Business Leaders,” Journal of Behavioral Economics, pp. 157-185.

 

**Prasad, Jyoti, Yunus Kathawala, Matthew Monippallil and Richard Hattwick     (1993).  “Business and Academe:  A comparison of Perceptions on Business Ethics,”  The Journal of Socio-Economics, Volume 22, Number 1, pp. 69-83.

The response rate in 2003 was much lower than the other two groups.  In the intervening 15 years, chief executives and presidents have been receiving many more surveys than in the past. This might account for the lower response rate.  The lack of a follow-up postcard might have contributed to it also.  Twice as many surveys were sent out this time as in the past so a follow-up postcard would not be necessary. This was not an accurate assumption.  A follow-up postcard would probably have been more effective.

Faculty

In both 1989 and 2003, university faculty were contacted by sending a letter to the Dean of a college of business and asking him or her to complete the survey and also ask three other faculty to respond.  All of the selected colleges in 2003 were members of the AACSB.   A follow-up postcard was sent out three weeks after the initial survey was mailed.  This was too apparently too long of a time period to elapse to be effective.  A problem also did arise with this survey that may have contributed to a lower response rate.  Some of the faculty received questions that inadvertently had been printed with the student demographic questions rather than the faculty demographic ones.  All of the deans received the correct version.

TABLE 2B.      RESPONSE RATES FOR THE TWO FACULTY STUDIES
1989* 2003
Population of interest
Number Sent out 637 x 4 634 X 4
Number of good responses 445 269
Response Rate 17% 11%
Source:                  2003 Study of Ethics

 

*Monippallil, Matthew, Yunus Kathawala, Richard Hattwick, Larry Wall and Bong-Gon P. Shin, (1999).  “Business Ethics in America:  A View From the Classroom,“ The Journal of Behavioral Economics, Volume 19, Number 1, pp.  125-140.

Students

The students in the 1995 study were college of business students from Eastern Illinois University.  In order to obtain a wider perspective of students’ ethical attitudes, faculty from the American National Hall of Fame were invited to participate in the collection of student data at their university.  A few other selected faculty were also invited to participate.  By January 10, 2004, a total of 1009 good questionnaires were returned for processing and analysis.  An additional 84 were provided by Simona Stan at the University of Oregon.  Jerry Wall at University of Louisiana at Monroe collected 189 surveys from his university.  They were received in February and could not be included in the first version of this report.  Redoing the many, many tables to include their data was beyond the scope of this study.  They, however, will be part of the database that faculty can use to develop professional articles.   The students attended college at a private university, several regional universities and two flagship universities.   Table 2C presents the listing of the universities that participated and the number of students surveyed at each.   Table 2.E gives information about the number of students in each of the two studies.


TABLE 2C.     NUMBER OF STUDENTS FROM EACH UNIVERSITY
University Contact Number Returned Percent
Colorado State U. John Olienyk  & O.C. Ferrell 79 8%
Eastern Illinois U. Yunus Kathawala 186 18
Illinois Wesleyan U. Fred Hoyt 45 4
Kennesaw State U. Kamal Fatehi 198 20
Loyola Marymount U. Edmund Gray 156 16
Southeast Mo State U. Ken Heischmidt 57 6
Southwest Mo State U. Charlie Pettijohn 58 6
U. of Akron Mike d’Amico 109 11
U. of Illinois – Champaign John Kindt 21 2
Western Illinois U. Joe Dobson 100 10
  101%
*U. of Louisiana at Monroe Jerry Wall 189  
*U. of Oregon Simona Stan 84
                        Source:    2003 Study of Ethics

 
*Not included in this report.


TABLE 2D. NUMBER OF RESPONSES FOR THE TWO STUDENT 
                          STUDIES
  1995 * 2003
 Population of interest College of Business students Students taking classes in the College of Business.
Number of good responses 191 1009
                                      Source:                  2003 Study of Ethic 

* Prasad, Jyoti, Nancy Marlow and Richard Hattwick (1998).     
“Gender-BasedDifferences in Perception of a Just Society, “ Journal of Business Ethics, Volume 17, pp. 219-  228.

QUESTIONNAIRE

The researchers thought the questionnaire would be the easiest part of the research process.  They were mistaken.  This part of the research became a very complicated part.  The studies from 1983 to 1995 did not include the same questions for all studies nor was the wording of the “same” question exactly the same.  Some of the differences were unintentional.  For example, the wording of the questions in the report for the 1983 study had slightly different wording for some of the questions that had been on the questionnaire.   All questions from the studies were entered into an Excel spreadsheet so that a visual examination of the questions could be made. Anyone interested in looking at this spreadsheet should contact Paul.  The first page of the spreadsheet is given as Appendix A.  Consequently,  in most instances, the most recent wording was used. 

Also, in doing all of the investigation of the wording of the questions, an error was made in the current study.  In the previous studies, a five-point Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree scale had been utilized with No Opinion being the midpoint for most of the questions.  In the 2003 survey, questions 30 to 38 were to have had the Influence set of answers.  But the Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree set of answers was mistakenly used instead. The possible answers should have been “Extensive Influence, Some Influence, No Opinion, Little Influence and No Influence.” Therefore, the extent of influence can be gained by interpreting a questions such as “To what extent are ethical standards of business executives influenced by peer group pressure?” as “Peer Group pressure influences the ethical standards of business executives” with the degree of agreement being the possible answers. 

Table 2.F gives the number of questions asked of each group for each survey.  The first survey in 1983 had 93 questions.  All three of the 2003 questionnaires had approximately 50 questions, instead of more questions, to try to increase response rate.

 

TABLE 2E.     NUMBER OF QUESTIONS ASKED IN EACH SURVEY
Year of the Study Group Surveyed Number of Questions
Attitudinal Demographic
1983 Business Leaders 85 9
1988 Business Leaders 48 5
1989 Faculty 48 5
1995 Students 51 4
2003 Business Leaders 47 7
2003 Faculty 47 5
2003 Students 47 4
                            Source:    2003 Study of Ethics

 

One of the major goals for the 2003 study was to keep the survey to no more than two pages, plus a cover letter.  Also, the same attitudinal questions were to be asked of all three groups in 2003.  Consequently, a review of the questions that had been asked ALL three groups from 1983 to 1995 revealed that only 29 had been asked of business leaders, faculty and students.  These became the first 29 questions on the 2003 survey.  Then, nine questions that had been asked of both the business leaders and the faculty were included.  These were the infamous “influence” questions that need to be reinterpreted from the original wording of the questions.  The last nine questions had been asked of both business leaders and students.  There were NO questions included on the 2003 questionnaires that had been asked of only one group.  The demographic questions were changed for the three groups.  Note that some of the faculty received a survey that had student demographics.  For those instances, the information concerning having taken an ethics course and gender was still recorded for the faculty.

As indicated above, the seemingly relatively simple updating of the ethical views of three groups became complex since three different research designs had to be employed.  Also, the original 84-attitudinal questions had to be analyzed for consistency in wording in subsequent surveys.  Other ethical questions were added to the faculty survey.  All subsequent surveys had no more than 48 attitudinal questions.  Therefore deciding what to ask became a somewhat complex question.   The research team consulted with Dick Hattwick concerning which form of the question should be used.  The questionnaires for the business professionals, faculty and students are provided in Appendices B to E.

METHOD OF ANALYSIS

Given the complexity of the research design and the relatively few questions that had been asked of all three groups in earlier studies, the analysis therefore became a little more complex.   Only 29 of the 47-attitudinal questions had been asked of all three groups in earlier studies. Therefore, the tables of analysis in this study had to accommodate the other 18 questions.  The research team tried to make the tables of information as consistent and easy to use as possible.  When a question was Not Asked of a particular group, then a NA was entered into the table.  For the students in the 1995, some of the information asked on the survey was not presented in the journal article.  Therefore, a NI for No Information (but asked) was included on the tables.   For this current study, any nonresponse for the attitudinal questions was coded as a 3 for “No Opinion.”

Because there is so much information to be presented, the tables were segmented into logical sections.  Also, within each section, where possible, a more summary like table with the question, the year, the group, the percent who agreed, the average response, the standard deviation and the number of respondents is presented.  The second table, where possible, presents the percentage of respondents who gave each of the Agreement answers.



SECTION 3:

BACKGROUND

CHARACTERISTICS OF

 ALL THREE GROUPS

 

 

BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BUSINESS LEADERS, FACULTY AND STUDENTS

 

INTRODUCTION

 

The background characteristics of each of the three groups for 2003 will be presented.  A comparison to the earlier respective demographics will also be given.  The question on ethics is presented before the demographics.  The characteristics of the business leaders, faculty and students will then be discussed.

Although not a demographic question, the question concerning haven taken an ethics class, its information is presented in this section.   Table 3A reveals that business leaders were more likely to have taken the ethics course than the current college of business students.  The students were the least likely to have had such a course.


TABLE 3A.    PERCENT IN EACH GROUP HAVING TAKEN AN ETHICS OR MORAL PHILOSOPHY COURSE
  Percent Saying Yes
Business Leaders Faculty Students
Have you ever taken an ethics or moral philosophy course? 56% 51% 36%
  (n=66) (n=266) (n=1003)
Source:            2003 Study of Ethics


DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS

 

BUSINESS LEADERS

As shown in Table 3B, in 2003 an overwhelming percentage of the respondents were male, 92%.  Even though Best Lists of Arizona randomly selected the sample of large companies, none of the respondent’s companies employed more than 900 persons.  The average was in the 700 range.  The two states with the largest number of respondents were California and Illinois, 14% and 11%.   Almost half of the respondents were CEO’s, in the service sector and had a management and marketing background. 

The percentage of respondents in 1983 identifying themselves as CEO’s was very close to the 2003 percentage.  No information was reported in the 1988 article about business leaders.

TABLE 3B.     DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ESPONDING USINESS                               LEADERS
  Year of the Study
Demographic Characteristics 2003 1988 1983
Gender            :
  Male 92%    
  Females 8%    
  100% (n=63)    
 
Approximate Number of Employees
50 11%    
500 22%    
600 11%    
700 11%    
800 22%    
900 22%    
  99%  (n=9)    
 
State in which you work
Alabama 2    
CA 14    
Colorado 2    
Connecticut 2    
Florida 3    
Georgia 3    
Illinois 11    
Indiana 6    
Iowa 2    
Kentucky 2    
Louisiana 3    
MA 2    
Maryland 2    
MI 6    
Minnesota 3    
MO 2    
Nebraska 2    
New Jersey 3    
New York 5    
NC 3    
Ohio 6    
PA 5    
SC 2    
South Dakota 2    
Tennessee 2    
Texas 6    
  101% (n=66)    
 
Job Title or Position

 

TABLE 3B.     DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPONDING                         USINESS LEADERS
  Year of the Study
Demographic Characteristics 2003 1988 1983
CEO 47%   69%
President 20%    
Vice President 20%   14%
Other 14%   17%
  101% (n=64)   100% (n=119)
 
Largest General Area of Your Business
Services 44%    
Manufacturing 30%    
Agriculture/Construction 8%    
Transportation 12%    
US/Global/North America 5%    
  99% (n=61)    
 
Functional Area in Which You Have Primarily Worked?
Management 33%    
Marketing 18%    
Finance 13%    
Operations 27%    
Other 8%    
  99% (n=58)    
                       Source:       2003 Study of Ethics

FACULTY

In 2003, three fourths of the faculty respondents were male.  The largest responding group was faculty.   About half were from regional universities with masters programs.  About 4 in 10 were in business administration or management.  All of the respondents in 2003 were from AACSB accredited schools.  Only 43% of the 1989 respondents were from AACSB schools.  Note that there are many missing values in this data since not all faculty received a questionnaire with the correct demographic questions on it.  In 1989, almost the same percentage of faculty responded as in 2003, 53% to 52%.

TABLE 3C.    DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE
                            RESPONDING FACULTY
Year of the Study
Demographic Characteristics 2003 1989
Gender
Male 75%  
Female 25%  
  100%  (n=264)  
 
Title
Dean 39% 27%
Associate Dean 9%  
Faculty 52% 53%
Chairpersons 0% 20%
  100% (n=151) 100% (n=445)
 
General Nature of their Universities
Regional U.  Undergraduate Only 9%  
Regional U. with Masters 52%  
Doctoral Granting 40%  
  100% (n=90)  
 
General Area of teaching
Accounting 11%  
Business Administration 13%  
Management 30%  
Ethics and/or Law 6%  
Management Information 6%  
Economics 11%  
Other 4%  
Finance 7  
Marketing 13%  
  100% (n=202)  
     
AACSB Accredited 100% 43%
     
                                             Source:       2003 Study of Ethics

STUDENTS

In 2003, over half of the students were male compared to 49% in 1995.   There were a lower percentage of senior students in 2003 compared to 1995, 39% to 47%.   The vast majority in both years was college of  business majors.

TABLE 3D.    DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE                             RESPONDING STUDENTS
  Year of the Study
Demographic Characteristics 2003 1995
Gender
Male 54% 49%
Female 46% 51%
  100% (n=1002) 100% (n=191)
 
Year in School
Freshman/Sophomore 3% 8%
Junior/Senior 48% 45%
Senior/graduate school 39% 47%
  100% (n=1009) 100% (n=191)
 
Major
College of Business 98% 90%
Other 2% 10%
  100% (n=995) 100% (n=191)
     
                                              Source:       2003 Study of Ethics

 

SECTION 4:

FOCUS ON ALL THREE GROUPS

FOR 2003 ONLY

 

SECTION 4:

FOCUS ON ALL THREE GROUPS

FOR 2003 ONLY

 

INTRODUCTION

In this section, the focus is on the information concerning all three groups:  business leaders, faculty and students.  Table 4A presents a summary version of the information for each of the 47 attitudinal questions.  For each question for each group, the percent that agreed with each statement is given.  In addition, the average response (low is positive) and the standard deviation for each question are provided.  The number of responses completes the information for each group for each question.  Questions 30 to 38 are given at the end of the table since their answers should have reflected “to what extent” instead of a SA to SD perspective.  See Table 4B for a clearer understanding of these questions.

Table 4B gives the percentage of respondents who either Strongly Agreed, Agree, gave No Opinion, Disagreed or Strongly Disagreed for each question for each group.  The discussion will focus on Table 4A.  One can examine the differences in the actual responses in Table 4B depending upon his or her interest in the particular question and/or group.

 

ANALYSIS

Table 4A shows the percent of the three responding groups agreeing with each statement.  Of the 47 questions on the 2003 questionnaire, 27 answers were positive from all of the respondents.  Nine responses were negative from all of the respondents.  The respondents’ answers were mixed on the other 11 questions.  Of the 11 questions with mixed responses, faculty and students agreed 6 times, faculty and business people agreed 3 times, and business people and students agreed twice.  Four out of the six times that faculty and students agreed their answers were positive.  All three times that faculty agreed with business people their answers were negative.  Business people and students agreed once positively and once negatively.  Overall, business people gave positive answers 66 percent of the time; faculty gave positive answers 68 percent of the time; and students gave positive answers 72 percent of the time.


TABLE 4A.     PERCENT OF EACH OF THE THREE 2003 RESPONDING
GROUPS AGREEING WITH EACH STATEMENT  (1=SA;  5=SD)
Q# QUESTION Year Type % Agree Mean Std. Dev. n=
1 The corporation has a responsibility to take the
lead in solving major social problems such as
pollution, discrimination, and safety.
2003 Business Leaders 76% 2.1 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 67% 2.4 1.2 269
2003 Students 77% 2.2 0.9 1009
 
2 The corporation has a responsibility to not become
involved in solving social problems unless doing so
becomes a cost of doing business or the opportunity
to earn a profit.
2003 Business Leaders 11% 4.0 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 19% 3.8 1.1 269
2003 Students 25% 3.4 1.0 1009
 
3 The corporation has the responsibility to get involved
in social responsibility projects because outside
pressures make such  an involvement a cost of doing
business.
2003 Business Leaders 35% 3.1 0.9 66
2003 Faculty 58% 2.7 1.0 269
2003 Students 60% 2.5 0.9 1009
 
4 The corporation has a responsibility to promote
equal opportunity in hiring and promotion.
2003 Business Leaders 99% 1.3 0.5 66
2003 Faculty 95% 1.5 0.7 269
2003 Students 93% 1.5 0.8 1009
 
5 The corporation has a responsibility to promote
conservation of energy even if doing so means a
reduction in profits.
2003 Business Leaders 71% 2.4 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 68% 2.4 1.1 269
2003 Students 66% 2.3 1.0 1009
 
6 The corporation has a responsibility to conserve
natural resources, even if doing so means a reduction
in profits.
2003 Business Leaders 70% 2.4 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 73% 2.2 1.1 269
2003 Students 72% 2.2 0.9 1009
 
7 The corporation has a responsibility to clean up or
avoid causing air, noise, and water pollution even if
doing so means a reduction in profits.
2003 Business Leaders 92% 1.9 0.8 66
2003 Faculty 81% 2.0 1.0 269
2003 Students 83% 1.9 0.8 1009
 
8 The corporation has a responsibility to contribute
money and management time to civic activities in
communities where the firm has plants or offices.
2003 Business Leaders 88% 1.7 0.9 66
2003 Faculty 80% 2.0 0.9 269
2003 Students 73% 2.2 0.9 1009
 
9 The corporation has a responsibility to help minority
owned businesses.
2003 Business Leaders 56% 2.6 1.1 66
2003 Faculty 42% 2.8 1.0 269
2003 Students 30% 3.0 1.0 1009
 
10 The corporation has a responsibility to be truthful in
advertising.
2003 Business Leaders 99% 1.2 0.4 66
2003 Faculty 99% 1.2 0.5 269
2003 Students 94% 1.5 0.7 1009
 
11 The typical business executive has two sets of ethical standards, one which he/she applies to business activities and another which is applied to his/her private life. 2003 Business Leaders 12% 4.3 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 38% 3.2 1.2 269
2003 Students 60% 2.6 1.2 1009
 
12 Ethical standards in business are lower than in government. 2003 Business Leaders 11% 4.2 0.9 66
2003 Faculty 15% 3.7 1.0 269
2003 Students 20% 3.4 1.0 1009
 
13 Ethical standards in business are lower than in most religious organizations. 2003 Business Leaders 28% 3.5 1.2 66
2003 Faculty 51% 2.9 1.2 269
2003 Students 55% 2.6 1.1 1009
 
14 Ethical standards in business are lower than in the typical American family. 2003 Business Leaders 19% 3.8 1.1 66
2003 Faculty 36% 3.1 1.1 269
2003 Students 46% 2.8 1.0 1009
 
15 The ethical standards used in business are as high as those practiced with family and friends. 2003 Business Leaders 67% 2.5 0.9 66
2003 Faculty 34% 3.2 1.0 269
2003 Students 24% 3.3 1.0 1009
 
16 Occasionally, business people make decisions that are right for business but which are inconsistent with their personal ethical principles. 2003 Business Leaders 59% 2.8 1.1 66
2003 Faculty 85% 2.1 0.7 269
2003 Students 89% 2.0 0.6 1009
 
17 Much advertising done by business is misleading to the consumer. 2003 Business Leaders 29% 3.3 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 53% 2.8 1.1 269
2003 Students 60% 2.5 1.0 1009
 
18 Effective advertising may have to be somewhat misleading.   2003 Business Leaders 8% 4.1 0.8 66
2003 Faculty 7% 4.1 0.8 269
2003 Students 36% 3.2 1.1 1009
 
19 It is in the long run self-interest of business to protect the customer. 2003 Business Leaders 91% 1.8 0.8 66
2003 Faculty 92% 1.6 0.8 269
2003 Students 76% 2.1 0.9 1009
 
20 The average customer is less ethical in dealing with business than the business is in dealing with that customer. 2003 Business Leaders 31% 3.1 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 20% 3.3 0.9 269
2003 Students 31% 3.1 1.0 1009
 
21 No employee should be required to engage in business practices that employee considers unethical. 2003 Business Leaders 87% 1.7 0.9 66
2003 Faculty 81% 1.9 1.0 269
2003 Students 84% 1.8 0.9 1009
 
22 In accepting an employment offer each employee implicitly agrees to abide by the ethical standards of the employer, even if the company standards differ from those of the employee. 2003 Business Leaders 53% 2.8 1.2 66
2003 Faculty 43% 3.1 1.2 269
2003 Students 55% 2.7 1.1 1009
 
23 Wages and salaries should vary according to an employee’s productivity.  2003 Business Leaders 88% 1.8 0.8 66
2003 Faculty 91% 1.8 0.7 269
2003 Students 84% 1.9 0.8 1009
 
24 Wages and salaries should vary according to both the employee’s productivity and years of service with the firm. 2003 Business Leaders 49% 2.9 1.1 66
2003 Faculty 54% 2.7 1.1 269
2003 Students 81% 2.1 0.9 1009
 
25 Wages and salaries should vary primarily with the employee's years of service with the firm. 2003 Business Leaders 3% 4.2 0.7 66
2003 Faculty 3% 4.1 0.7 269
2003 Students 36% 3.1 1.1 1009
 
26 Labor unions serve a useful purpose by prodding a particular management into fulfilling its responsibilities to labor. 2003 Business Leaders 29% 3.6 1.2 66
2003 Faculty 54% 2.8 1.1 269
2003 Students 47% 2.8 1.0 1009
 
27 The corporation should seek to maximize short run profits. 2003 Business Leaders 29% 3.4 1.2 66
2003 Faculty 16% 3.9 1.1 269
2003 Students 34% 3.1 1.0 1009
 
28 The corporation should seek to earn a satisfactory rate of return for stockholders. 2003 Business Leaders 99% 1.5 0.5 66
2003 Faculty 95% 1.8 0.6 269
2003 Students 83% 2.1 0.7 1009
 
29 The ethical standards in competition are determined by the least ethical competitor.  If one firm engages in unethical conduct, the others will have to follow to survive. 2003 Business Leaders 0% 4.5 0.6 66
2003 Faculty 7% 4.0 0.8 269
2003 Students 20% 3.6 1.1 1009
 
39 All institutions in our society should seek to protect and promote the interests of individuals. 2003 Business Leaders 34% 3.1 1.0 65
2003 Faculty 43% 2.8 1.1 268
2003 Students 63% 2.4 1.0 1009
40 Individual freedom may have to be partly restricted in order for organizations to effectively function. 2003 Business Leaders 56% 2.7 1.1 66
2003 Faculty 69% 2.6 1.1 269
2003 Students 50% 2.8 1.1 1009
 
41 Government should redistribute income in order to assure a minimum standard of living for all citizens. 2003 Business Leaders 23% 3.7 1.1 66
2003 Faculty 35% 3.3 1.3 269
2003 Students 28% 3.4 1.2 1009
 
42 Government should provide incentives for business to get involved in solving social problems.  2003 Business Leaders 55% 2.8 1.1 66
2003 Faculty 74% 2.4 1.1 269
2003 Students 71% 2.3 0.9 1009
  
43 Truth in lending regulations are needed to protect the customer. 2003 Business Leaders 86% 2.0 0.8 66
2003 Faculty 88% 1.9 0.8 269
2003 Students 75% 2.1 0.7 1009
 
44 Antitrust laws prohibiting price fixing benefit the customer.  2003 Business Leaders 85% 2.1 0.8 66
2003 Faculty 82% 2.0 0.9 269
2003 Students 67% 2.2 0.8 1009
 
45 Lazy or incompetent employees should be fired. 2003 Business Leaders 86% 1.9 0.9 66
2003 Faculty 87% 1.8 0.8 269
2003 Students 82% 1.9 0.9 1009
 
46 A company should have formal policies to guarantee that every employee has an equal opportunity for promotion, pay increases, and other rewards provided by the firm. 2003 Business Leaders 86% 1.8 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 91% 1.7 0.8 269
2003 Students 88% 1.7 0.8 1009
 
47 The corporation should seek to maximize long run profits.  2003 Business Leaders 93% 1.7 0.8 66
2003 Faculty 92% 1.6 0.8 269
2003 Students 88% 1.7 0.7 1009
 
30 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by peer group pressures? 2003 Business Leaders 55% 2.8 1.0 64
2003 Faculty 87% 2.0 0.8 252
2003 Students 75% 2.2 0.9 1004
 
31 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by prevailing industry practice? 2003 Business Leaders 66% 2.6 1.0 64
2003 Faculty 91% 1.9 0.6 252
2003 Students 87% 2.0 0.7 1004
 
32 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by perceived preference of top executives? 2003 Business Leaders 81% 2.2 0.9 64
2003 Faculty 89% 1.8 0.7 253
2003 Students 86% 1.9 0.8 1004
 
33 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by family experiences?  2003 Business Leaders 83% 2.2 0.8 64
2003 Faculty 72% 2.3 1.0 254
2003 Students 58% 2.6 1.0 1004
 
34 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by church experiences? 2003 Business Leaders 74% 2.4 0.9 64
2003 Faculty 59% 2.6 1.0 254
2003 Students 43% 2.9 1.0 1004
 
35 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by your educational experiences?  2003 Business Leaders 83% 2.2 0.7 64
2003 Faculty 73% 2.3 0.8 254
2003 Students 78% 2.2 0.8 1004
 
36 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by company's ethical code or policy? 2003 Business Leaders 90% 1.9 0.8 64
2003 Faculty 75% 2.3 0.9 254
2003 Students 80% 2.1 0.8 1004
 
37 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by professional ethical code? 2003 Business Leaders 85% 2.0 0.8 64
2003 Faculty 78% 2.2 0.9 254
2003 Students 84% 2.1 0.8 1004
 
38 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by society's moral climate?  2003 Business Leaders 75% 2.3 0.9 64
2003 Faculty 80% 2.1 0.8 255
2003 Students 71% 2.3 0.9 1004


 

TABLE 4B.  FOR ALL SEVEN YEARS, PERCENT OF EACH OF THE THREE GROUPS PROVIDING
THEIR DEGREE OF AGREEMENT WITH EACH STATEMENT (1=SA;  5=SD)
Q# QUESTION Year Type %SA %A %NO %D %SD n=
   1 The corporation has a responsibility to take the lead in solving major social problems such as pollution, discrimination, and safety. 2003 Bus. Leaders 29 47 12 9 3 66
2003 Faculty 23 44 9 20 4 269
2003 Students 23 54 11 11 1 1009
 
   2 The corporation has a responsibility to not become involved in solving social problems unless doing so becomes a cost of doing business or the opportunity to earn a profit. 2003 Bus. Leaders 3 8 8 52 30 66
2003 Faculty 3 16 7 52 23 269
2003 Students 3 22 20 45 10 1009

 

   3 The corporation has the responsibility to get involved in social responsibility projects because outside pressures make such  an involvement a cost of doing business. 2003 Bus. Leaders 2 33 21 42 2 66
2003 Faculty 7 51 15 23 5 269
2003 Students 7 53 25 13 1 1009

 

   4 The corporation has a responsibility to promote equal opportunity in hiring and promotion. 2003 Bus. Leaders 76 23 0 2 0 66
2003 Faculty 64 31 3 2 1 269
2003 Students 64 29 4 2 1 1009
 
   5 The corporation has a responsibility to promote conservation of energy even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Bus. Leaders 15 56 8 18 3 66
2003 Faculty 23 45 11 18 3 269
2003 Students 20 46 19 14 1 1009

 

   6 The corporation has a responsibility to conserve natural resources, even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Bus. Leaders 11 59 11 15 5 66
2003 Faculty 26 47 7 16 3 269
2003 Students 23 49 17 11 1 1009
 
   7 The corporation has a responsibility to clean up or avoid causing air, noise, and water pollution even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Bus. Leaders 26 66 2 5 2 66
2003 Faculty 35 46 5 12 2 269
2003 Students 30 53 10 6 1 1009
 
   8 The corporation has a responsibility to contribute money and management time to civic activities in communities where the firm has plants or offices. 2003 Bus. Leaders 53 35 6 5 2 66
2003 Faculty 31 49 9 9 1 269
2003 Students 19 54 17 8 1 1009
 
   9 The corporation has a responsibility to help minority owned businesses. 2003 Bus. Leaders 14 42 24 15 5 66
2003 Faculty 9 33 31 23 5 269
2003 Students 8 22 39 24 7 1009
 
10 The corporation has a responsibility to be truthful in advertising. 2003 Bus. Leaders 85 14 2 0 0 66
2003 Faculty 82 17 1 0 0 269
2003 Students 59 35 4 1 0 1009
 
11 The typical business executive has two sets of ethical standards, one which he/she applies to business activities and another which is applied to his/her private life. 2003 Bus. Leaders 0 12 2 33 53 66
2003 Faculty 8 30 12 35 16 269
2003 Students 16 44 13 21 6 1009
 
12 Ethical standards in business are lower than in government. 2003 Bus. Leaders 0 11 5 44 41 66
2003 Faculty 3 12 16 49 20 269
2003 Students 3 17 28 44 9 1009
 
13 Ethical standards in business are lower than in most religious organizations. 2003 Bus. Leaders 5 23 15 32 26 66
2003 Faculty 10 41 12 29 8 269
2003 Students 15 40 23 18 4 1009
 
14 Ethical standards in business are lower than in the typical American family. 2003 Bus. Leaders 2 17 11 45 26 66
2003 Faculty 6 30 22 35 7 269
2003 Students 8 38 28 24 3 1009
 
15 The ethical standards used in business are as high as those practiced with family and friends. 2003 Bus. Leaders 6 61 9 24 0 66
2003 Faculty 4 30 16 45 4 269
2003 Students 5 19 24 46 7 1009
 
16 Occasionally, business people make decisions that are right for business but which are inconsistent with their personal ethical principles. 2003 Bus. Leaders 6 53 6 29 6 66
2003 Faculty 13 72 7 7 1 269
2003 Students 17 72 7 4 0 1009
 
17 Much advertising done by business is misleading to the consumer. 2003 Bus. Leaders 3 26 15 53 3 66
2003 Faculty 7 46 9 32 6 269
2003 Students 10 50 17 22 1 1009
 
18 Effective advertising may have to be somewhat misleading.   2003 Bus. Leaders 0 8 8 56 29 66
2003 Faculty 1 6 6 59 27 269
2003 Students 4 32 14 42 9 1009
 
19 It is in the long run self-interest of business to protect the customer. 2003 Bus. Leaders 35 56 3 6 0 66
2003 Faculty 50 42 5 3 0 269
2003 Students 26 50 13 10 1 1009
 
20 The average customer is less ethical in dealing with business than the business is in dealing with that customer. 2003 Bus. Leaders 5 26 30 33 6 66
2003 Faculty 3 17 34 43 3 269
2003 Students 5 26 29 37 4 1009
  
21 No employee should be required to engage in business practices that employee considers unethical. 2003 Bus. Leaders 55 32 5 9 0 66
2003 Faculty 42 39 6 13 0 269
2003 Students 41 43 8 7 1 1009
 
22 In accepting an employment offer each employee implicitly agrees to abide by the ethical standards of the employer, even if the company standards differ from those of the employee. 2003 Bus. Leaders 14 39 12 27 8 66
2003 Faculty 9 34 9 37 11 269
2003 Students 10 45 18 24 4 1009
 
23 Wages and salaries should vary according to an employee’s productivity.  2003 Bus. Leaders 36 52 6 6 0 66
2003 Faculty 39 52 6 3 1 269
2003 Students 30 54 9 6 1 1009
 
24 Wages and salaries should vary according to both the employee’s productivity and years of service with the firm. 2003 Bus. Leaders 8 41 11 35 6 66
2003 Faculty 8 46 16 25 5 269
2003 Students 25 56 9 9 1 1009
 
25 Wages and salaries should vary primarily with the employee's years of service with the firm. 2003 Bus. Leaders 0 3 6 61 30 66
2003 Faculty 1 2 8 62 27 269
2003 Students 6 30 18 40 7 1009
 
26 Labor unions serve a useful purpose by prodding a particular management into fulfilling its responsibilities to labor. 2003 Bus. Leaders 3 26 9 33 29 66
2003 Faculty 7 47 17 19 10 269
2003 Students 5 42 30 16 7 1009
 
27 The corporation should seek to maximize short run profits. 2003 Bus. Leaders 8 21 11 44 17 66
2003 Faculty 3 13 9 45 31 269
2003 Students 3 31 28 33 5 1009
 
28 The corporation should seek to earn a satisfactory rate of return for stockholders. 2003 Bus. Leaders 52 47 2 0 0 66
2003 Faculty 30 65 2 2 0 269
2003 Students 14 69 12 4 0 1009
 
29 The ethical standards in competition are determined by the least ethical competitor.  If one firm engages in unethical conduct, the others will have to follow to survive. 2003 Bus. Leaders 0 0 3 49 49 66
2003 Faculty 1 6 6 62 25 269
2003 Students 4 16 17 43 19 1009
 
39 All institutions in our society should seek to protect and promote the interests of individuals. 2003 Bus. Leaders 2 32 25 37 5 65
2003 Faculty 12 31 27 27 3 268
2003 Students 15 48 18 18 1 1009
 
40 Individual freedom may have to be partly restricted in order for organizations to effectively function. 2003 Bus. Leaders 6 50 14 24 6 66
2003 Faculty 7 62 10 13 9 269
2003 Students 6 44 18 26 6 1009
 
41 Government should redistribute income in order to assure a minimum standard of living for all citizens. 2003 Bus. Leaders 2 21 11 38 29 66
2003 Faculty 7 28 14 30 21 269
2003 Students 6 22 22 30 20 1009
 
42 Government should provide incentives for business to get involved in solving social problems.  2003 Bus. Leaders 8 47 14 26 6 66
2003 Faculty 15 59 7 14 5 269
2003 Students 16 55 15 11 3 1009
 
43 Truth in lending regulations is needed to protect the customer. 2003 Bus. Leaders 21 65 6 6 2 66
2003 Faculty 33 55 8 3 2 269
2003 Students 17 58 22 3 0 1009
 
44 Antitrust laws prohibiting price fixing benefit the customer.  2003 Bus. Leaders 20 65 8 6 2 66
2003 Faculty 26 56 12 3 3 269
2003 Students 19 48 26 5 1 1009
 
45 Lazy or incompetent employees should be fired. 2003 Bus. Leaders 33 53 5 9 0 66
2003 Faculty 39 48 8 5 1 269
2003 Students 39 43 12 5 1 1009
 
46 A company should have formal policies to guarantee that every employee has an equal opportunity for promotion, pay increases, and other rewards provided by the firm. 2003 Bus. Leaders 44 42 8 2 5 66
2003 Faculty 49 42 5 1 3 269
2003 Students 44 44 8 3 1 1009
 
47 The corporation should seek to maximize long run profits.  2003 Bus. Leaders 46 47 3 5 0 66
2003 Faculty 51 41 5 3 1 269
2003 Students 45 43 10 1 0 1009
 
30 * Ethical standards are influenced by peer group pressures. 2003 Bus. Leaders 2 53 13 28 5 64
2003 Faculty 23 64 8 5 1 252
2003 Students 13 62 14 10 2 1004
 
31 * Ethical standards are influenced by prevailing industry practice. 2003 Bus. Leaders 3 63 8 25 2 64
2003 Faculty 26 65 6 3 0 252
2003 Students 20 67 9 4 0 1004
 
32 * Ethical standards are influenced by perceived preference of top executives. 2003 Bus. Leaders 17 64 6 9 3 64
2003 Faculty 33 56 8 3 0 253
2003 Students 29 57 10 4 1 1004
 
33 * Ethical standards are influenced by family experiences. 2003 Bus. Leaders 8 75 6 9 2 64
2003 Faculty 11 61 14 12 1 254
2003 Students 11 47 20 21 1 1004
 
34 * Ethical standards are influenced by church experiences. 2003 Bus. Leaders 8 66 10 14 2 64
2003 Faculty 8 51 21 17 3 254
2003 Students 8 35 26 27 4 1004
 
35 * Ethical standards are influenced by your educational experiences?. 2003 Bus. Leaders 8 75 9 6 2 64
2003 Faculty 8 65 14 12 1 254
2003 Students 14 64 12 9 1 1004
 
36 * Ethical standards are influenced by company's ethical code or policy. 2003 Bus. Leaders 27 63 3 6 2 64
2003 Faculty 11 64 13 10 2 254
2003 Students 19 61 12 7 1 1004
 
37 * Ethical standards are influenced by professional ethical code. 2003 Bus. Leaders 27 58 8 8 0 64
2003 Faculty 15 63 11 10 2 254
2003 Students 19 65 9 6 1 1004
 
38 * Ethical standards are influenced by society's moral climate. 2003 Bus. Leaders 8 67 9 14 2 64
2003 Faculty 20 60 11 8 1 255
2003 Students 14 57 16 12 2 1004
 Source:       2003 Study of Ethics

* The actual question on the questionnaire was “To what extent are ethical standards influenced by…"




SECTION 5

FOCUS ON ONLY THE BUSINESS 

 LEADERS  FOR 2003

 

SECTION 5

FOCUS ON ONLY THE BUSINESS LEADERS

FOR 2003

INTRODUCTION

In this section, the focus is only on the business leaders for the 2003 study.  Table 5A presents a summary version of the information for each of the 47 attitudinal questions.  For each question, the percent that agreed with each statement is given.  In addition, the average response (low is positive) and the standard deviation for each question are provided.  The number of responses completes the information for each group for each question.  Questions 30 to 38 are given at the end of the table since their answers should have reflected “to what extent” instead of a SA to SD perspective.  See Table 5B for a clearer understanding of these questions.  Table 5B gives the percentage of respondents who either Strongly Agreed, Agree, gave No Opinion, Disagreed or Strongly Disagreed for each question. 

 

ANALYSIS

 

 One can examine the differences in the actual responses in these two tables depending upon his or her interest in the particular question and/or group.  A detailed analysis of the information in this section is beyond the scope of the project.

TABLE 5A.     PERCENT OF THE BUSINESS LEADERS IN 2003 AGREEING WITH
                              EACH STATEMENT (1 = SA; 5=SD)
Q# QUESTION Year Type % Agree Mean Std. Dev. n=
1 The corporation has a responsibility to take the lead in solving major social problems such as pollution, discrimination, and safety. 2003 Business Leaders 76% 2.1 1.0 66
2 The corporation has a responsibility to not become involved in solving social problems unless doing so becomes a cost of doing business or the opportunity to earn a profit. 2003 Business Leaders 11% 4.0 1.0 66
3 The corporation has the responsibility to get involved in social responsibility projects because outside pressures make such  an involvement a cost of doing business. 2003 Business Leaders 35% 3.1 0.9 66
4 The corporation has a responsibility to promote equal opportunity in hiring and promotion. 2003 Business Leaders 99% 1.3 0.5 66
5 The corporation has a responsibility to promote conservation of energy even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Business Leaders 71% 2.4 1.0 66
6 The corporation has a responsibility to conserve natural resources, even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Business Leaders 70% 2.4 1.0 66
7 The corporation has a responsibility to clean up or avoid causing air, noise, and water pollution even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Business Leaders 92% 1.9 0.8 66
8 The corporation has a responsibility to contribute money and management time to civic activities in communities where the firm has plants or offices. 2003 Business Leaders 88% 1.7 0.9 66
9 The corporation has a responsibility to help minority owned businesses. 2003 Business Leaders 56% 2.6 1.1 66
10 The corporation has a responsibility to be truthful in advertising. 2003 Business Leaders 99% 1.2 0.4 66
11 The typical business executive has two sets of ethical standards, one which he/she applies to business activities and another which is applied to his/her private life. 2003 Business Leaders 12% 4.3 1.0 66
12 Ethical standards in business are lower than in government. 2003 Business Leaders 11% 4.2 0.9 66
13 Ethical standards in business are lower than in most religious organizations. 2003 Business Leaders 28% 3.5 1.2 66
14 Ethical standards in business are lower than in the typical American family. 2003 Business Leaders 19% 3.8 1.1 66
15 The ethical standards used in business are as high as those practiced with family and friends. 2003 Business Leaders 67% 2.5 0.9 66
16 Occasionally, business people make decisions that are right for business but which are inconsistent with their personal ethical principles. 2003 Business Leaders 59% 2.8 1.1 66
17 Much advertising done by business is misleading to the consumer. 2003 Business Leaders 29% 3.3 1.0 66
18 Effective advertising may have to be somewhat misleading.   2003 Business Leaders 8% 4.1 0.8 66
19 It is in the long run self-interest of business to protect the customer. 2003 Business Leaders 91% 1.8 0.8 66
20 The average customer is less ethical in dealing with business than the business is in dealing with that customer. 2003 Business Leaders 31% 3.1 1.0 66
21 No employee should be required to engage in business practices that employee considers unethical. 2003 Business Leaders 87% 1.7 0.9 66
22 In accepting an employment offer each employee implicitly agrees to abide by the ethical standards of the employer, even if the company standards differ from those of the employee. 2003 Business Leaders 53% 2.8 1.2 66
23 Wages and salaries should vary according to an employee’s productivity.  2003 Business Leaders 88% 1.8 0.8 66
24 Wages and salaries should vary according to both the employee’s productivity and years of service with the firm. 2003 Business Leaders 49% 2.9 1.1 66
25 Wages and salaries should vary primarily with the employee's years of service with the firm. 2003 Business Leaders 3% 4.2 0.7 66
26 Labor unions serve a useful purpose by prodding a particular management into fulfilling its responsibilities to labor. 2003 Business Leaders 29% 3.6 1.2 66
27 The corporation should seek to maximize short run profits. 2003 Business Leaders 29% 3.4 1.2 66
28 The corporation should seek to earn a satisfactory rate of return for stockholders. 2003 Business Leaders 99% 1.5 0.5 66
29 The ethical standards in competition are determined by the least ethical competitor.  If one firm engages in unethical conduct, the others will have to follow to survive. 2003 Business Leaders 0% 4.5 0.6 66
39 All institutions in our society should seek to protect and promote the interests of individuals. 2003 Business Leaders 34% 3.1 1.0 65
40 Individual freedom may have to be partly restricted in order for organizations to effectively function. 2003 Business Leaders 56% 2.7 1.1 66
41 Government should redistribute income in order to assure a minimum standard of living for all citizens. 2003 Business Leaders 23% 3.7 1.1 66
42 Government should provide incentives for business to get involved in solving social problems.  2003 Business Leaders 55% 2.8 1.1 66
43 Truth in lending regulations are needed to protect the customer. 2003 Business Leaders 86% 2.0 0.8 66
44 Antitrust laws prohibiting price fixing benefit the customer.  2003 Business Leaders 85% 2.1 0.8 66
45 Lazy or incompetent employees should be fired. 2003 Business Leaders 86% 1.9 0.9 66
46 A company should have formal policies to guarantee that every employee has an equal opportunity for promotion, pay increases, and other rewards provided by the firm. 2003 Business Leaders 86% 1.8 1.0 66
47 The corporation should seek to maximize long run profits.  2003 Business Leaders 93% 1.7 0.8 66
30 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by peer group pressures? 2003 Business Leaders 55% 2.8 1.0 64
31 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by prevailing industry practice? 2003 Business Leaders 66% 2.6 1.0 64
32 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by perceived preference of top executives? 2003 Business Leaders 81% 2.2 0.9 64
33 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by family experiences?  2003 Business Leaders 83% 2.2 0.8 64
34 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by church experiences? 2003 Business Leaders 74% 2.4 0.9 64
35 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by your educational experiences?  2003 Business Leaders 83% 2.2 0.7 64
36 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by company's ethical code or policy? 2003 Business Leaders 90% 1.9 0.8 64
37 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by professional ethical code? 2003 Business Leaders 85% 2.0 0.8 64
38 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by society's moral climate?  2003 Business Leaders 75% 2.3 0.9 64

 

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TABLE 5B.       PERCENT OF THE BUSINESS LEADERS IN 2003 PROVIDING THEIR DEGREE
                               OF AGREEMENT WITH EACH STATEMENT (1=SA;  5=SD)
Q# QUESTION Year Type %SA %A %NO %D %SD n=
   1 The corporation has a responsibility to take the lead in solving major social problems such as pollution, discrimination, and safety. 2003 Bus. Leaders 29 47 12 9 3 66
   2 The corporation has a responsibility to not become involved in solving social problems unless doing so becomes a cost of doing business or the opportunity to earn a profit. 2003 Bus. Leaders 3 8 8 52 30 66
   3 The corporation has the responsibility to get involved in social responsibility projects because outside pressures make such  an involvement a cost of doing business. 2003 Bus. Leaders 2 33 21 42 2 66
   4 The corporation has a responsibility to promote equal opportunity in hiring and promotion. 2003 Bus. Leaders 76 23 0 2 0 66
   5 The corporation has a responsibility to promote conservation of energy even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Bus. Leaders 15 56 8 18 3 66
   6 The corporation has a responsibility to conserve natural resources, even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Bus. Leaders 11 59 11 15 5 66
   7 The corporation has a responsibility to clean up or avoid causing air, noise, and water pollution even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Bus. Leaders 26 66 2 5 2 2003
   8 The corporation has a responsibility to contribute money and management time to civic activities in communities where the firm has plants or offices. 2003 Bus. Leaders 53 35 6 5 2 66
   9 The corporation has a responsibility to help minority owned businesses. 2003 Bus. Leaders 14 42 24 15 5 66
10 The corporation has a responsibility to be truthful in advertising. 2003 Bus. Leaders 85 14 2 0 0 66
11 The typical business executive has two sets of ethical standards, one which he/she applies to business activities and another which is applied to his/her private life. 2003 Bus. Leaders 0 12 2 33 53 66
12 Ethical standards in business are lower than in government. 2003 Bus. Leaders 0 11 5 44 41 66
13 Ethical standards in business are lower than in most religious organizations. 2003 Bus. Leaders 5 23 15 32 26 66
14 Ethical standards in business are lower than in the typical American family. 2003 Bus. Leaders 2 17 11 45 26 66
15 The ethical standards used in business are as high as those practiced with family and friends. 2003