SECTION 4:

 

FOCUS ON ALL THREE GROUPS

 

FOR 2003 ONLY

 

 

 

SECTION 4:

 

FOCUS ON ALL THREE GROUPS

FOR 2003 ONLY

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

In this section, the focus is on the information concerning all three groups:  business leaders, faculty and students.  Table 4A presents a summary version of the information for each of the 47 attitudinal questions.  For each question for each group, the percent that agreed with each statement is given.  In addition, the average response (low is positive) and the standard deviation for each question are provided.  The number of responses completes the information for each group for each question.  Questions 30 to 38 are given at the end of the table since their answers should have reflected “to what extent” instead of a SA to SD perspective.  See Table 4B for a clearer understanding of these questions.

 

Table 4B gives the percentage of respondents who either Strongly Agreed, Agree, gave No Opinion, Disagreed or Strongly Disagreed for each question for each group.  The discussion will focus on Table 4A.  One can examine the differences in the actual responses in Table 4B depending upon his or her interest in the particular question and/or group.

 

 

ANALYSIS

 

 

Table 4A shows the percent of the three responding groups agreeing with each statement.  Of the 47 questions on the 2003 questionnaire, 27 answers were positive from all of the respondents.  Nine responses were negative from all of the respondents.  The respondents’ answers were mixed on the other 11 questions.  Of the 11 questions with mixed responses, faculty and students agreed 6 times, faculty and business people agreed 3 times, and business people and students agreed twice.  Four out of the six times that faculty and students agreed their answers were positive.  All three times that faculty agreed with business people their answers were negative.  Business people and students agreed once positively and once negatively.  Overall, business people gave positive answers 66 percent of the time; faculty gave positive answers 68 percent of the time; and students gave positive answers 72 percent of the time.

 

 

TABLE 4A.     PERCENT OF EACH OF THE THREE 2003 RESPONDING
                             GROUPS AGREEING WITH EACH STATEMENT   (1=SA;  5=SD)
Q# QUESTION Year Type % Agree Mean Std. Dev. n=
1 The corporation has a responsibility to take
the lead in solving major social problems
such as pollution, discrimination, and safety.
2003 Business Leaders 76% 2.1 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 67% 2.4 1.2 269
2003 Students 77% 2.2 0.9 1009
 
2 The corporation has a responsibility to not
become involved in solving social problems
unless doing so becomes a cost of doing
business or the opportunity to earn a profit.
2003 Business Leaders 11% 4.0 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 19% 3.8 1.1 269
2003 Students 25% 3.4 1.0 1009
 
3 The corporation has the responsibility to get
involved in social responsibility projects because
outside pressures make such  an involvement
a cost of doing business.
2003 Business Leaders 35% 3.1 0.9 66
2003 Faculty 58% 2.7 1.0 269
2003 Students 60% 2.5 0.9 1009
 
4 The corporation has a responsibility to promote
equal opportunity in hiring and promotion.
2003 Business Leaders 99% 1.3 0.5 66
2003 Faculty 95% 1.5 0.7 269
2003 Students 93% 1.5 0.8 1009
 
5 The corporation has a responsibility to promote
conservation of energy even if doing so means a
reduction in profits.
2003 Business Leaders 71% 2.4 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 68% 2.4 1.1 269
2003 Students 66% 2.3 1.0 1009
 
6 The corporation has a responsibility to conserve
natural resources, even if doing so means a
reduction in profits.
2003 Business Leaders 70% 2.4 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 73% 2.2 1.1 269
2003 Students 72% 2.2 0.9 1009
 
7 The corporation has a responsibility to clean up
or avoid causing air, noise, and water pollution
even if doing so means a reduction in profits.
2003 Business Leaders 92% 1.9 0.8 66
2003 Faculty 81% 2.0 1.0 269
2003 Students 83% 1.9 0.8 1009
 
8 The corporation has a responsibility to contribute
money and management time to civic activities in
communities where the firm has plants or offices.
2003 Business Leaders 88% 1.7 0.9 66
2003 Faculty 80% 2.0 0.9 269
2003 Students 73% 2.2 0.9 1009
 
9 The corporation has a responsibility to help
minority owned businesses.
2003 Business Leaders 56% 2.6 1.1 66
2003 Faculty 42% 2.8 1.0 269
2003 Students 30% 3.0 1.0 1009
 
10 The corporation has a responsibility to be truthful
in advertising.
2003 Business Leaders 99% 1.2 0.4 66
2003 Faculty 99% 1.2 0.5 269
2003 Students 94% 1.5 0.7 1009
 
11 The typical business executive has two sets of
ethical standards, one which he/she applies to
business activities and another which is applied
to his/her private life.
2003 Business Leaders 12% 4.3 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 38% 3.2 1.2 269
2003 Students 60% 2.6 1.2 1009
 
12 Ethical standards in business are lower than in
government.
2003 Business Leaders 11% 4.2 0.9 66
2003 Faculty 15% 3.7 1.0 269
2003 Students 20% 3.4 1.0 1009
 
13 Ethical standards in business are lower than in
most religious organizations.
2003 Business Leaders 28% 3.5 1.2 66
2003 Faculty 51% 2.9 1.2 269
2003 Students 55% 2.6 1.1 1009
 
14 Ethical standards in business are lower than in
the typical American family.
2003 Business Leaders 19% 3.8 1.1 66
2003 Faculty 36% 3.1 1.1 269
2003 Students 46% 2.8 1.0 1009
 
15 The ethical standards used in business are as high
as those practiced with family and friends.
2003 Business Leaders 67% 2.5 0.9 66
2003 Faculty 34% 3.2 1.0 269
2003 Students 24% 3.3 1.0 1009
 
16 Occasionally, business people make decisions
that are right for business but which are inconsistent
with their personal ethical principles.
2003 Business Leaders 59% 2.8 1.1 66
2003 Faculty 85% 2.1 0.7 269
2003 Students 89% 2.0 0.6 1009
 
17 Much advertising done by business is misleading
to the consumer.
2003 Business Leaders 29% 3.3 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 53% 2.8 1.1 269
2003 Students 60% 2.5 1.0 1009
 
18 Effective advertising may have to be somewhat
misleading.  
2003 Business Leaders 8% 4.1 0.8 66
2003 Faculty 7% 4.1 0.8 269
2003 Students 36% 3.2 1.1 1009
 
19 It is in the long run self-interest of business to
protect the customer.
2003 Business Leaders 91% 1.8 0.8 66
2003 Faculty 92% 1.6 0.8 269
2003 Students 76% 2.1 0.9 1009
 
20 The average customer is less ethical in dealing
with business than the business is in dealing with that customer.
2003 Business Leaders 31% 3.1 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 20% 3.3 0.9 269
2003 Students 31% 3.1 1.0 1009
 
21 No employee should be required to engage in
business practices that employee considers unethical.
2003 Business Leaders 87% 1.7 0.9 66
2003 Faculty 81% 1.9 1.0 269
2003 Students 84% 1.8 0.9 1009
 
22 In accepting an employment offer each employee
implicitly agrees to abide by the ethical standards
of the employer, even if the company standards
differ from those of the employee.
2003 Business Leaders 53% 2.8 1.2 66
2003 Faculty 43% 3.1 1.2 269
2003 Students 55% 2.7 1.1 1009
 
23 Wages and salaries should vary according to an
employee’s productivity. 
2003 Business Leaders 88% 1.8 0.8 66
2003 Faculty 91% 1.8 0.7 269
2003 Students 84% 1.9 0.8 1009
 
24 Wages and salaries should vary according to
both the employee’s productivity and years of
service with the firm.
2003 Business Leaders 49% 2.9 1.1 66
2003 Faculty 54% 2.7 1.1 269
2003 Students 81% 2.1 0.9 1009
 
25 Wages and salaries should vary primarily with
the employee's years of service with the firm.
2003 Business Leaders 3% 4.2 0.7 66
2003 Faculty 3% 4.1 0.7 269
2003 Students 36% 3.1 1.1 1009
 
26 Labor unions serve a useful purpose by prodding
a particular management into fulfilling its
responsibilities to labor.
2003 Business Leaders 29% 3.6 1.2 66
2003 Faculty 54% 2.8 1.1 269
2003 Students 47% 2.8 1.0 1009
 
27 The corporation should seek to maximize short
run profits.
2003 Business Leaders 29% 3.4 1.2 66
2003 Faculty 16% 3.9 1.1 269
2003 Students 34% 3.1 1.0 1009
 
28 The corporation should seek to earn a satisfactory
rate of return for stockholders.
2003 Business Leaders 99% 1.5 0.5 66
2003 Faculty 95% 1.8 0.6 269
2003 Students 83% 2.1 0.7 1009
 
29 The ethical standards in competition are determined
by the least ethical competitor.  If one firm engages
in unethical conduct, the others will have to follow
to survive.
2003 Business Leaders 0% 4.5 0.6 66
2003 Faculty 7% 4.0 0.8 269
2003 Students 20% 3.6 1.1 1009
 
39 All institutions in our society should seek to protect
and promote the interests of individuals.
2003 Business Leaders 34% 3.1 1.0 65
2003 Faculty 43% 2.8 1.1 268
2003 Students 63% 2.4 1.0 1009
40 Individual freedom may have to be partly restricted
in order for organizations to effectively function.
2003 Business Leaders 56% 2.7 1.1 66
2003 Faculty 69% 2.6 1.1 269
2003 Students 50% 2.8 1.1 1009
 
41 Government should redistribute income in order to
assure a minimum standard of living for all citizens.
2003 Business Leaders 23% 3.7 1.1 66
2003 Faculty 35% 3.3 1.3 269
2003 Students 28% 3.4 1.2 1009
 
42 Government should provide incentives for business
to get involved in solving social problems. 
2003 Business Leaders 55% 2.8 1.1 66
2003 Faculty 74% 2.4 1.1 269
2003 Students 71% 2.3 0.9 1009
  
43 Truth in lending regulations are needed to protect
the customer.
2003 Business Leaders 86% 2.0 0.8 66
2003 Faculty 88% 1.9 0.8 269
2003 Students 75% 2.1 0.7 1009
 
44 Antitrust laws prohibiting price fixing benefit the
customer. 
2003 Business Leaders 85% 2.1 0.8 66
2003 Faculty 82% 2.0 0.9 269
2003 Students 67% 2.2 0.8 1009
 
45 Lazy or incompetent employees should be fired. 2003 Business Leaders 86% 1.9 0.9 66
2003 Faculty 87% 1.8 0.8 269
2003 Students 82% 1.9 0.9 1009
 
46 A company should have formal policies to guarantee
that every employee has an equal opportunity for
promotion, pay increases, and other rewards
provided by the firm.
2003 Business Leaders 86% 1.8 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 91% 1.7 0.8 269
2003 Students 88% 1.7 0.8 1009
 
47 The corporation should seek to maximize long
run profits. 
2003 Business Leaders 93% 1.7 0.8 66
2003 Faculty 92% 1.6 0.8 269
2003 Students 88% 1.7 0.7 1009
 
30 To what extent are ethical standards influenced
by peer group pressures?
2003 Business Leaders 55% 2.8 1.0 64
2003 Faculty 87% 2.0 0.8 252
2003 Students 75% 2.2 0.9 1004
 
31 To what extent are ethical standards influenced
by prevailing industry practice?
2003 Business Leaders 66% 2.6 1.0 64
2003 Faculty 91% 1.9 0.6 252
2003 Students 87% 2.0 0.7 1004
 
32 To what extent are ethical standards influenced
by perceived preference of top executives?
2003 Business Leaders 81% 2.2 0.9 64
2003 Faculty 89% 1.8 0.7 253
2003 Students 86% 1.9 0.8 1004
 
33 To what extent are ethical standards influenced
by family experiences? 
2003 Business Leaders 83% 2.2 0.8 64
2003 Faculty 72% 2.3 1.0 254
2003 Students 58% 2.6 1.0 1004
 
34 To what extent are ethical standards influenced
by church experiences?
2003 Business Leaders 74% 2.4 0.9 64
2003 Faculty 59% 2.6 1.0 254
2003 Students 43% 2.9 1.0 1004
 
35 To what extent are ethical standards influenced
by your educational experiences? 
2003 Business Leaders 83% 2.2 0.7 64
2003 Faculty 73% 2.3 0.8 254
2003 Students 78% 2.2 0.8 1004
 
36 To what extent are ethical standards influenced
by company's ethical code or policy?
2003 Business Leaders 90% 1.9 0.8 64
2003 Faculty 75% 2.3 0.9 254
2003 Students 80% 2.1 0.8 1004
 
37 To what extent are ethical standards influenced
by professional ethical code?
2003 Business Leaders 85% 2.0 0.8 64
2003 Faculty 78% 2.2 0.9 254
2003 Students 84% 2.1 0.8 1004
 
38 To what extent are ethical standards influenced
by society's moral climate? 
2003 Business Leaders 75% 2.3 0.9 64
2003 Faculty 80% 2.1 0.8 255
2003 Students 71% 2.3 0.9 1004

 

 

 

TABLE 4B.       FOR ALL SEVEN YEARS, PERCENT OF EACH OF THE THREE GROUPS PROVIDING THEIR
                            DEGREE OF AGREEMENT WITH EACH STATEMENT   
(1=SA;  5=SD)

Q# QUESTION Year Type %SA %A %NO %D %SD n=
   1 The corporation has a responsibility to take the lead in solving major social problems such as pollution, discrimination, and safety. 2003 Bus. Leaders 29 47 12 9 3 66
2003 Faculty 23 44 9 20 4 269
2003 Students 23 54 11 11 1 1009
 
   2 The corporation has a responsibility to not become involved in solving social problems unless doing so becomes a cost of doing business or the opportunity to earn a profit. 2003 Bus. Leaders 3 8 8 52 30 66
2003 Faculty 3 16 7 52 23 269
2003 Students 3 22 20 45 10 1009
 
   3 The corporation has the responsibility to get involved in social responsibility projects because outside pressures make such  an involvement a cost of doing business. 2003 Bus. Leaders 2 33 21 42 2 66
2003 Faculty 7 51 15 23 5 269
2003 Students 7 53 25 13 1 1009
 
   4 The corporation has a responsibility to promote equal opportunity in hiring and promotion. 2003 Bus. Leaders 76 23 0 2 0 66
2003 Faculty 64 31 3 2 1 269
2003 Students 64 29 4 2 1 1009
 
   5 The corporation has a responsibility to promote conservation of energy even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Bus. Leaders 15 56 8 18 3 66
2003 Faculty 23 45 11 18 3 269
2003 Students 20 46 19 14 1 1009
 
   6 The corporation has a responsibility to conserve natural resources, even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Bus. Leaders 11 59 11 15 5 66
2003 Faculty 26 47 7 16 3 269
2003 Students 23 49 17 11 1 1009
   
   7 The corporation has a responsibility to clean up or avoid causing air, noise, and water pollution even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Bus. Leaders 26 66 2 5 2 66
2003 Faculty 35 46 5 12 2 269
2003 Students 30 53 10 6 1 1009
 
   8 The corporation has a responsibility to contribute money and management time to civic activities in communities where the firm has plants or offices. 2003 Bus. Leaders 53 35 6 5 2 66
2003 Faculty 31 49 9 9 1 269
2003 Students 19 54 17 8 1 1009
 
   9 The corporation has a responsibility to help minority owned businesses. 2003 Bus. Leaders 14 42 24 15 5 66
2003 Faculty 9 33 31 23 5 269
2003 Students 8 22 39 24 7 1009
 
10 The corporation has a responsibility to be truthful in advertising. 2003 Bus. Leaders 85 14 2 0 0 66
2003 Faculty 82 17 1 0 0 269
2003 Students 59 35 4 1 0 1009
 
11 The typical business executive has two sets of ethical standards, one which he/she applies to business activities and another which is applied to his/her private life. 2003 Bus. Leaders 0 12 2 33 53 66
2003 Faculty 8 30 12 35 16 269
2003 Students 16 44 13 21 6 1009
 
12 Ethical standards in business are lower than in government. 2003 Bus. Leaders 0 11 5 44 41 66
2003 Faculty 3 12 16 49 20 269
2003 Students 3 17 28 44 9 1009
 
13 Ethical standards in business are lower than in most religious organizations. 2003 Bus. Leaders 5 23 15 32 26 66
2003 Faculty 10 41 12 29 8 269
2003 Students 15 40 23 18 4 1009
 
14 Ethical standards in business are lower than in the typical American family. 2003 Bus. Leaders 2 17 11 45 26 66
2003 Faculty 6 30 22 35 7 269
2003 Students 8 38 28 24 3 1009
 
15 The ethical standards used in business are as high as those practiced with family and friends. 2003 Bus. Leaders 6 61 9 24 0 66
2003 Faculty 4 30 16 45 4 269
2003 Students 5 19 24 46 7 1009
 
16 Occasionally, business people make decisions that are right for business but which are inconsistent with their personal ethical principles. 2003 Bus. Leaders 6 53 6 29 6 66
2003 Faculty 13 72 7 7 1 269
2003 Students 17 72 7 4 0 1009
 
17 Much advertising done by business is misleading to the consumer. 2003 Bus. Leaders 3 26 15 53 3 66
2003 Faculty 7 46 9 32 6 269
2003 Students 10 50 17 22 1 1009
 
18 Effective advertising may have to be somewhat misleading.   2003 Bus. Leaders 0 8 8 56 29 66
2003 Faculty 1 6 6 59 27 269
2003 Students 4 32 14 42 9 1009
 
19 It is in the long run self-interest of business to protect the customer. 2003 Bus. Leaders 35 56 3 6 0 66
2003 Faculty 50 42 5 3 0 269
2003 Students 26 50 13 10 1 1009
 
20 The average customer is less ethical in dealing with business than the business is in dealing with that customer. 2003 Bus. Leaders 5 26 30 33 6 66
2003 Faculty 3 17 34 43 3 269
2003 Students 5 26 29 37 4 1009
  
21 No employee should be required to engage in business practices that employee considers unethical. 2003 Bus. Leaders 55 32 5 9 0 66
2003 Faculty 42 39 6 13 0 269
2003 Students 41 43 8 7 1 1009
 
22 In accepting an employment offer each employee implicitly agrees to abide by the ethical standards of the employer, even if the company standards differ from those of the employee. 2003 Bus. Leaders 14 39 12 27 8 66
2003 Faculty 9 34 9 37 11 269
2003 Students 10 45 18 24 4 1009
 
23 Wages and salaries should vary according to an employee’s productivity.  2003 Bus. Leaders 36 52 6 6 0 66
2003 Faculty 39 52 6 3 1 269
2003 Students 30 54 9 6 1 1009
 
24 Wages and salaries should vary according to both the employee’s productivity and years of service with the firm. 2003 Bus. Leaders 8 41 11 35 6 66
2003 Faculty 8 46 16 25 5 269
2003 Students 25 56 9 9 1 1009
 
25 Wages and salaries should vary primarily with the employee's years of service with the firm. 2003 Bus. Leaders 0 3 6 61 30 66
2003 Faculty 1 2 8 62 27 269
2003 Students 6 30 18 40 7 1009
 
26 Labor unions serve a useful purpose by prodding a particular management into fulfilling its responsibilities to labor. 2003 Bus. Leaders 3 26 9 33 29 66
2003 Faculty 7 47 17 19 10 269
2003 Students 5 42 30 16 7 1009
 
27 The corporation should seek to maximize short run profits. 2003 Bus. Leaders 8 21 11 44 17 66
2003 Faculty 3 13 9 45 31 269
2003 Students 3 31 28 33 5 1009
 
28 The corporation should seek to earn a satisfactory rate of return for stockholders. 2003 Bus. Leaders 52 47 2 0 0 66
2003 Faculty 30 65 2 2 0 269
2003 Students 14 69 12 4 0 1009
 
29 The ethical standards in competition are determined by the least ethical competitor.  If one firm engages in unethical conduct, the others will have to follow to survive. 2003 Bus. Leaders 0 0 3 49 49 66
2003 Faculty 1 6 6 62 25 269
2003 Students 4 16 17 43 19 1009
 
39 All institutions in our society should seek to protect and promote the interests of individuals. 2003 Bus. Leaders 2 32 25 37 5 65
2003 Faculty 12 31 27 27 3 268
2003 Students 15 48 18 18 1 1009
 
40 Individual freedom may have to be partly restricted in order for organizations to effectively function. 2003 Bus. Leaders 6 50 14 24 6 66
2003 Faculty 7 62 10 13 9 269
2003 Students 6 44 18 26 6 1009
 
41 Government should redistribute income in order to assure a minimum standard of living for all citizens. 2003 Bus. Leaders 2 21 11 38 29 66
2003 Faculty 7 28 14 30 21 269
2003 Students 6 22 22 30 20 1009
 
42 Government should provide incentives for business to get involved in solving social problems.  2003 Bus. Leaders 8 47 14 26 6 66
2003 Faculty 15 59 7 14 5 269
2003 Students 16 55 15 11 3 1009
 
43 Truth in lending regulations is needed to protect the customer. 2003 Bus. Leaders 21 65 6 6 2 66
2003 Faculty 33 55 8 3 2 269
2003 Students 17 58 22 3 0 1009
 
44 Antitrust laws prohibiting price fixing benefit the customer.  2003 Bus. Leaders 20 65 8 6 2 66
2003 Faculty 26 56 12 3 3 269
2003 Students 19 48 26 5 1 1009
 
45 Lazy or incompetent employees should be fired. 2003 Bus. Leaders 33 53 5 9 0 66
2003 Faculty 39 48 8 5 1 269
2003 Students 39 43 12 5 1 1009
 
46 A company should have formal policies to guarantee that every employee has an equal opportunity for promotion, pay increases, and other rewards provided by the firm. 2003 Bus. Leaders 44 42 8 2 5 66
2003 Faculty 49 42 5 1 3 269
2003 Students 44 44 8 3 1 1009
 
47 The corporation should seek to maximize long run profits.  2003 Bus. Leaders 46 47 3 5 0 66
2003 Faculty 51 41 5 3 1 269
2003 Students 45 43 10 1 0 1009
 
30 * Ethical standards are influenced by peer group pressures. 2003 Bus. Leaders 2 53 13 28 5 64
2003 Faculty 23 64 8 5 1 252
2003 Students 13 62 14 10 2 1004
 
31 * Ethical standards are influenced by prevailing industry practice. 2003 Bus. Leaders 3 63 8 25 2 64
2003 Faculty 26 65 6 3 0 252
2003 Students 20 67 9 4 0 1004
 
32 * Ethical standards are influenced by perceived preference of top executives. 2003 Bus. Leaders 17 64 6 9 3 64
2003 Faculty 33 56 8 3 0 253
2003 Students 29 57 10 4 1 1004
 
33 * Ethical standards are influenced by family experiences. 2003 Bus. Leaders 8 75 6 9 2 64
2003 Faculty 11 61 14 12 1 254
2003 Students 11 47 20 21 1 1004
 
34 * Ethical standards are influenced by church experiences. 2003 Bus. Leaders 8 66 10 14 2 64
2003 Faculty 8 51 21 17 3 254
2003 Students 8 35 26 27 4 1004
 
35 * Ethical standards are influenced by your educational experiences?. 2003 Bus. Leaders 8 75 9 6 2 64
2003 Faculty 8 65 14 12 1 254
2003 Students 14 64 12 9 1 1004
 
36 * Ethical standards are influenced by company's ethical code or policy. 2003 Bus. Leaders 27 63 3 6 2 64
2003 Faculty 11 64 13 10 2 254
2003 Students 19 61 12 7 1 1004
 
37 * Ethical standards are influenced by professional ethical code. 2003 Bus. Leaders 27 58 8 8 0 64
2003 Faculty 15 63 11 10 2 254
2003 Students 19 65 9 6 1 1004
 
38 * Ethical standards are influenced by society's moral climate. 2003 Bus. Leaders 8 67 9 14 2 64
2003 Faculty 20 60 11 8 1 255
2003 Students 14 57 16 12 2 1004
 Source:       2003 Study of Ethics

 

* The actual question on the questionnaire was “To what extent are ethical standards influenced by…"