SECTION 5

 

FOCUS ON ONLY THE BUSINESS

 

 LEADERS  FOR 2003

 

 

SECTION 5

 

FOCUS ON ONLY THE BUSINESS LEADERS

FOR 2003

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

In this section, the focus is only on the business leaders for the 2003 study.  Table 5A presents a summary version of the information for each of the 47 attitudinal questions.  For each question, the percent that agreed with each statement is given.  In addition, the average response (low is positive) and the standard deviation for each question are provided.  The number of responses completes the information for each group for each question.  Questions 30 to 38 are given at the end of the table since their answers should have reflected “to what extent” instead of a SA to SD perspective.  See Table 5B for a clearer understanding of these questions.  Table 5B gives the percentage of respondents who either Strongly Agreed, Agree, gave No Opinion, Disagreed or Strongly Disagreed for each question. 

 

 

 

ANALYSIS

 

 

 

 One can examine the differences in the actual responses in these two tables depending upon his or her interest in the particular question and/or group.  A detailed analysis of the information in this section is beyond the scope of the project.

 

 


TABLE 5A.     PERCENT OF THE BUSINESS LEADERS IN 2003 AGREEING
                             WITH EACH STATEMENT (1 = SA; 5=SD)
Q# QUESTION Year Type % Agree Mean Std. Dev. n=
1 The corporation has a responsibility to take the lead in solving major social problems such as pollution, discrimination, and safety. 2003 Business Leaders 76% 2.1 1.0 66
2 The corporation has a responsibility to not become involved in solving social problems unless doing so becomes a cost of doing business or the opportunity to earn a profit. 2003 Business Leaders 11% 4.0 1.0 66
3 The corporation has the responsibility to get involved in social responsibility projects because outside pressures make such  an involvement a cost of doing business. 2003 Business Leaders 35% 3.1 0.9 66
4 The corporation has a responsibility to promote equal opportunity in hiring and promotion. 2003 Business Leaders 99% 1.3 0.5 66
5 The corporation has a responsibility to promote conservation of energy even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Business Leaders 71% 2.4 1.0 66
6 The corporation has a responsibility to conserve natural resources, even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Business Leaders 70% 2.4 1.0 66
7 The corporation has a responsibility to clean up or avoid causing air, noise, and water pollution even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Business Leaders 92% 1.9 0.8 66
8 The corporation has a responsibility to contribute money and management time to civic activities in communities where the firm has plants or offices. 2003 Business Leaders 88% 1.7 0.9 66
9 The corporation has a responsibility to help minority owned businesses. 2003 Business Leaders 56% 2.6 1.1 66
10 The corporation has a responsibility to be truthful in advertising. 2003 Business Leaders 99% 1.2 0.4 66
11 The typical business executive has two sets of ethical standards, one which he/she applies to business activities and another which is applied to his/her private life. 2003 Business Leaders 12% 4.3 1.0 66
12 Ethical standards in business are lower than in government. 2003 Business Leaders 11% 4.2 0.9 66
13 Ethical standards in business are lower than in most religious organizations. 2003 Business Leaders 28% 3.5 1.2 66
14 Ethical standards in business are lower than in the typical American family. 2003 Business Leaders 19% 3.8 1.1 66
15 The ethical standards used in business are as high as those practiced with family and friends. 2003 Business Leaders 67% 2.5 0.9 66
16 Occasionally, business people make decisions that are right for business but which are inconsistent with their personal ethical principles. 2003 Business Leaders 59% 2.8 1.1 66
17 Much advertising done by business is misleading to the consumer. 2003 Business Leaders 29% 3.3 1.0 66
18 Effective advertising may have to be somewhat misleading.   2003 Business Leaders 8% 4.1 0.8 66
19 It is in the long run self-interest of business to protect the customer. 2003 Business Leaders 91% 1.8 0.8 66
20 The average customer is less ethical in dealing with business than the business is in dealing with that customer. 2003 Business Leaders 31% 3.1 1.0 66
21 No employee should be required to engage in business practices that employee considers unethical. 2003 Business Leaders 87% 1.7 0.9 66
22 In accepting an employment offer each employee implicitly agrees to abide by the ethical standards of the employer, even if the company standards differ from those of the employee. 2003 Business Leaders 53% 2.8 1.2 66
23 Wages and salaries should vary according to an employee’s productivity.  2003 Business Leaders 88% 1.8 0.8 66
24 Wages and salaries should vary according to both the employee’s productivity and years of service with the firm. 2003 Business Leaders 49% 2.9 1.1 66
25 Wages and salaries should vary primarily with the employee's years of service with the firm. 2003 Business Leaders 3% 4.2 0.7 66
26 Labor unions serve a useful purpose by prodding a particular management into fulfilling its responsibilities to labor. 2003 Business Leaders 29% 3.6 1.2 66
27 The corporation should seek to maximize short run profits. 2003 Business Leaders 29% 3.4 1.2 66
28 The corporation should seek to earn a satisfactory rate of return for stockholders. 2003 Business Leaders 99% 1.5 0.5 66
29 The ethical standards in competition are determined by the least ethical competitor.  If one firm engages in unethical conduct, the others will have to follow to survive. 2003 Business Leaders 0% 4.5 0.6 66
39 All institutions in our society should seek to protect and promote the interests of individuals. 2003 Business Leaders 34% 3.1 1.0 65
40 Individual freedom may have to be partly restricted in order for organizations to effectively function. 2003 Business Leaders 56% 2.7 1.1 66
41 Government should redistribute income in order to assure a minimum standard of living for all citizens. 2003 Business Leaders 23% 3.7 1.1 66
42 Government should provide incentives for business to get involved in solving social problems.  2003 Business Leaders 55% 2.8 1.1 66
43 Truth in lending regulations are needed to protect the customer. 2003 Business Leaders 86% 2.0 0.8 66
44 Antitrust laws prohibiting price fixing benefit the customer.  2003 Business Leaders 85% 2.1 0.8 66
45 Lazy or incompetent employees should be fired. 2003 Business Leaders 86% 1.9 0.9 66
46 A company should have formal policies to guarantee that every employee has an equal opportunity for promotion, pay increases, and other rewards provided by the firm. 2003 Business Leaders 86% 1.8 1.0 66
47 The corporation should seek to maximize long run profits.  2003 Business Leaders 93% 1.7 0.8 66
30 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by peer group pressures? 2003 Business Leaders 55% 2.8 1.0 64
31 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by prevailing industry practice? 2003 Business Leaders 66% 2.6 1.0 64
32 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by perceived preference of top executives? 2003 Business Leaders 81% 2.2 0.9 64
33 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by family experiences?  2003 Business Leaders 83% 2.2 0.8 64
34 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by church experiences? 2003 Business Leaders 74% 2.4 0.9 64
35 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by your educational experiences?  2003 Business Leaders 83% 2.2 0.7 64
36 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by company's ethical code or policy? 2003 Business Leaders 90% 1.9 0.8 64
37 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by professional ethical code? 2003 Business Leaders 85% 2.0 0.8 64
38 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by society's moral climate?  2003 Business Leaders 75% 2.3 0.9 64

 

 

 

 

TABLE 5B.       PERCENT OF THE BUSINESS LEADERS IN 2003 PROVIDING THEIR DEGREE
                               OF AGREEMENT WITH EACH STATEMENT (1=SA;  5=SD)
Q# QUESTION Year Type %SA %A %NO %D %SD n=
   1 The corporation has a responsibility to take the lead in solving major social problems such as pollution, discrimination, and safety. 2003 Bus. Leaders 29 47 12 9 3 66
   2 The corporation has a responsibility to not become involved in solving social problems unless doing so becomes a cost of doing business or the opportunity to earn a profit. 2003 Bus. Leaders 3 8 8 52 30 66
   3 The corporation has the responsibility to get involved in social responsibility projects because outside pressures make such  an involvement a cost of doing business. 2003 Bus. Leaders 2 33 21 42 2 66
   4 The corporation has a responsibility to promote equal opportunity in hiring and promotion. 2003 Bus. Leaders 76 23 0 2 0 66
   5 The corporation has a responsibility to promote conservation of energy even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Bus. Leaders 15 56 8 18 3 66
   6 The corporation has a responsibility to conserve natural resources, even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Bus. Leaders 11 59 11 15 5 66
   7 The corporation has a responsibility to clean up or avoid causing air, noise, and water pollution even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Bus. Leaders 26 66 2 5 2 2003
   8 The corporation has a responsibility to contribute money and management time to civic activities in communities where the firm has plants or offices. 2003 Bus. Leaders 53 35 6 5 2 66
   9 The corporation has a responsibility to help minority owned businesses. 2003 Bus. Leaders 14 42 24 15 5 66
10 The corporation has a responsibility to be truthful in advertising. 2003 Bus. Leaders 85 14 2 0 0 66
11 The typical business executive has two sets of ethical standards, one which he/she applies to business activities and another which is applied to his/her private life. 2003 Bus. Leaders 0 12 2 33 53 66
12 Ethical standards in business are lower than in government. 2003 Bus. Leaders 0 11 5 44 41 66
13 Ethical standards in business are lower than in most religious organizations. 2003 Bus. Leaders 5 23 15 32 26 66
14 Ethical standards in business are lower than in the typical American family. 2003 Bus. Leaders 2 17 11 45 26 66
15 The ethical standards used in business are as high as those practiced with family and friends. 2003 Bus. Leaders 6 61 9 24 0 66
16 Occasionally, business people make decisions that are right for business but which are inconsistent with their personal ethical principles. 2003 Bus. Leaders 6 53 6 29 6 66
17 Much advertising done by business is misleading to the consumer. 2003 Bus. Leaders 3 26 15 53 3 66
18 Effective advertising may have to be somewhat misleading.   2003 Bus. Leaders 0 8 8 56 29 66
19 It is in the long run self-interest of business to protect the customer. 2003 Bus. Leaders 35 56 3 6 0 66
20 The average customer is less ethical in dealing with business than the business is in dealing with that customer. 2003 Bus. Leaders 5 26 30 33 6 66
21 No employee should be required to engage in business practices that employee considers unethical. 2003 Bus. Leaders 55 32 5 9 0 66
22 In accepting an employment offer each employee implicitly agrees to abide by the ethical standards of the employer, even if the company standards differ from those of the employee. 2003 Bus. Leaders 14 39 12 27 8 66
23 Wages and salaries should vary according to an employee’s productivity.  2003 Bus. Leaders 36 52 6 6 0 66
24 Wages and salaries should vary according to both the employee’s productivity and years of service with the firm. 2003 Bus. Leaders 8 41 11 35 6 66
25 Wages and salaries should vary primarily with the employee's years of service with the firm. 2003 Bus. Leaders 0 3 6 61 30 66
26 Labor unions serve a useful purpose by prodding a particular management into fulfilling its responsibilities to labor. 2003 Bus. Leaders 3 26 9 33 29 66
27 The corporation should seek to maximize short run profits. 2003 Bus. Leaders 8 21 11 44 17 66
28 The corporation should seek to earn a satisfactory rate of return for stockholders. 2003 Bus. Leaders 52 47 2 0 0 66
29 The ethical standards in competition are determined by the least ethical competitor.  If one firm engages in unethical conduct, the others will have to follow to survive. 2003 Bus. Leaders 0 0 3 49 49 66
39 All institutions in our society should seek to protect and promote the interests of individuals. 2003 Bus. Leaders 2 32 25 37 5 65
40 Individual freedom may have to be partly restricted in order for organizations to effectively function. 2003 Bus. Leaders 6 50 14 24 6 66
41 Government should redistribute income in order to assure a minimum standard of living for all citizens. 2003 Bus. Leaders 2 21 11 38 29 66
42 Government should provide incentives for business to get involved in solving social problems.  2003 Bus. Leaders 8 47 14 26 6 66
43 Truth in lending regulations is needed to protect the customer. 2003 Bus. Leaders 21 65 6 6 2 66
44 Antitrust laws prohibiting price fixing benefit the customer.  2003 Bus. Leaders 20 65 8 6 2 66
45 Lazy or incompetent employees should be fired. 2003 Bus. Leaders 33 53 5 9 0 66
46 A company should have formal policies to guarantee that every employee has an equal opportunity for promotion, pay increases, and other rewards provided by the firm. 2003 Bus. Leaders 44 42 8 2 5 66
47 The corporation should seek to maximize long run profits.  2003 Bus. Leaders 46 47 3 5 0 66
30 * Ethical standards are influenced by peer group pressures? 2003 Bus. Leaders 2 53 13 28 5 64
31 * Ethical standards are influenced by prevailing industry practice. 2003 Bus. Leaders 3 63 8 25 2 64
32 * Ethical standards are influenced by perceived preference of top executives? 2003 Bus. Leaders 17 64 6 9 3 64
33 * Ethical standards are influenced by family experiences?  2003 Bus. Leaders 8 75 6 9 2 64
34 * Ethical standards are influenced by church experiences? 2003 Bus. Leaders 8 66 10 14 2 64
35 * Ethical standards are influenced by your educational experiences?  2003 Bus. Leaders 8 75 9 6 2 64
36 * Ethical standards are influenced by company's ethical code or policy? 2003 Bus. Leaders 27 63 3 6 2 64
37 * Ethical standards are influenced by professional ethical code? 2003 Bus. Leaders 27 58 8 8 0 64
38 * Ethical standards are influenced by society's moral climate?  2003 Bus. Leaders 8 67 9 14 2 64

Source:                  2003 Study of Ethics

 

* The actual question on the questionnaire was “ * To what extent are ethical standards influenced by …”