SECTION 7:

 

FOCUS ON ONLY THE STUDENTS

 

 FOR 2003

 

 

SECTION 7:

 

FOCUS ON ONLY THE STUDENTS FOR 2003

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

 

In this section, the focus is only on the students for the 2003 study.  Table 7A presents a summary version of the information for each of the 47 attitudinal questions.  For each question, the percent that agreed with each statement is given.  In addition, the average response (low is positive) and the standard deviation for each question are provided.  The number of responses completes the information for each group for each question.  Questions 30 to 38 are given at the end of the table since their answers should have reflected “to what extent” instead of a SA to SD perspective.  See Table 7B for a clearer understanding of these questions.  Table 7B gives the percentage of respondents who either Strongly Agreed, Agree, gave No Opinion, Disagreed or Strongly Disagreed for each question. 

 

 

 

ANALYSIS

 

 

 

One can examine the differences in the actual responses in these two tables depending upon his or her interest in the particular question and/or group.  A detailed analysis of the information in this section is beyond the scope of the project.

 

 

TABLE 7A.     PERCENT OF THE STUDENTS IN 2003 AGREEING WITH EACH
                           STATEMENT (1=SA;  5=SD)
Q# QUESTION Year Type % Agree Mean Std. Dev. n=
1 The corporation has a responsibility to take the lead in solving major social problems such as pollution, discrimination, and safety. 2003 Students 77% 2.2 0.9 1009
2 The corporation has a responsibility to not become involved in solving social problems unless doing so becomes a cost of doing business or the opportunity to earn a profit. 2003 Students 25% 3.4 1.0 1009
3 The corporation has the responsibility to get involved in social responsibility projects because outside pressures make such  an involvement a cost of doing business. 2003 Students 60% 2.5 0.9 1009
4 The corporation has a responsibility to promote equal opportunity in hiring and promotion. 2003 Students 93% 1.5 0.8 1009
5 The corporation has a responsibility to promote conservation of energy even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Students 66% 2.3 1.0 1009
6 The corporation has a responsibility to conserve natural resources, even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Students 72% 2.2 0.9 1009
7 The corporation has a responsibility to clean up or avoid causing air, noise, and water pollution even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Students 83% 1.9 0.8 1009
8 The corporation has a responsibility to contribute money and management time to civic activities in communities where the firm has plants or offices. 2003 Students 73% 2.2 0.9 1009
9 The corporation has a responsibility to help minority owned businesses. 2003 Students 30% 3.0 1.0 1009
10 The corporation has a responsibility to be truthful in advertising. 2003 Students 94% 1.5 0.7 1009
11 The typical business executive has two sets of ethical standards, one which he/she applies to business activities and another which is applied to his/her private life. 2003 Students 60% 2.6 1.2 1009
12 Ethical standards in business are lower than in government. 2003 Students 20% 3.4 1.0 1009
13 Ethical standards in business are lower than in most religious organizations. 2003 Students 55% 2.6 1.1 1009
14 Ethical standards in business are lower than in the typical American family. 2003 Students 46% 2.8 1.0 1009
15 The ethical standards used in business are as high as those practiced with family and friends. 2003 Students 24% 3.3 1.0 1009
16 Occasionally, business people make decisions that are right for business but which are inconsistent with their personal ethical principles. 2003 Students 89% 2.0 0.6 1009
17 Much advertising done by business is misleading to the consumer. 2003 Students 60% 2.5 1.0 1009
18 Effective advertising may have to be somewhat misleading.   2003 Students 36% 3.2 1.1 1009
19 It is in the long run self-interest of business to protect the customer. 2003 Students 76% 2.1 0.9 1009
20 The average customer is less ethical in dealing with business than the business is in dealing with that customer. 2003 Students 31% 3.1 1.0 1009
21 No employee should be required to engage in business practices that employee considers unethical. 2003 Students 84% 1.8 0.9 1009
22 In accepting an employment offer each employee implicitly agrees to abide by the ethical standards of the employer, even if the company standards differ from those of the employee. 2003 Students 55% 2.7 1.1 1009
23 Wages and salaries should vary according to an employee’s productivity.  2003 Students 84% 1.9 0.8 1009
24 Wages and salaries should vary according to both the employee’s productivity and years of service with the firm. 2003 Students 81% 2.1 0.9 1009
25 Wages and salaries should vary primarily with the employee's years of service with the firm. 2003 Students 36% 3.1 1.1 1009
26 Labor unions serve a useful purpose by prodding a particular management into fulfilling its responsibilities to labor. 2003 Students 47% 2.8 1.0 1009
27 The corporation should seek to maximize short run profits. 2003 Students 34% 3.1 1.0 1009
28 The corporation should seek to earn a satisfactory rate of return for stockholders. 2003 Students 83% 2.1 0.7 1009
29 The ethical standards in competition are determined by the least ethical competitor.  If one firm engages in unethical conduct, the others will have to follow to survive. 2003 Students 20% 3.6 1.1 1009
39 All institutions in our society should seek to protect and promote the interests of individuals. 2003 Students 63% 2.4 1.0 1009
40 Individual freedom may have to be partly restricted in order for organizations to effectively function. 2003 Students 50% 2.8 1.1 1009
41 Government should redistribute income in order to assure a minimum standard of living for all citizens. 2003 Students 28% 3.4 1.2 1009
42 Government should provide incentives for business to get involved in solving social problems.  2003 Students 71% 2.3 0.9 1009
43 Truth in lending regulations are needed to protect the customer. 2003 Students 75% 2.1 0.7 1009
44 Antitrust laws prohibiting price fixing benefit the customer.  2003 Students 67% 2.2 0.8 1009
45 Lazy or incompetent employees should be fired. 2003 Students 82% 1.9 0.9 1009
46 A company should have formal policies to guarantee that every employee has an equal opportunity for promotion, pay increases, and other rewards provided by the firm. 2003 Students 88% 1.7 0.8 1009
47 The corporation should seek to maximize long run profits.  2003 Students 88% 1.7 0.7 1009
30 * Ethical standards are influenced by peer group pressures. 2003 Students 75% 2.2 0.9 1004
31 * Ethical standards are influenced by prevailing industry practice. 2003 Students 87% 2.0 0.7 1004
32 * Ethical standards are influenced by the perceived preference of top executives. 2003 Students 86% 1.9 0.8 1004
33 * Ethical standards are influenced by family experiences. 2003 Students 58% 2.6 1.0 1004
34 * Ethical standards are influenced by church experiences. 2003 Students 43% 2.9 1.0 1004
35 * Ethical standards are influenced by your educational experiences.  2003 Students 78% 2.2 0.8 1004
36 * Ethical standards are influenced by company's ethical code or policy. 2003 Students 80% 2.1 0.8 1004
37 * Ethical standards are influenced by professional ethical code. 2003 Students 84% 2.1 0.8 1004
38 * Ethical standards are influenced by society's moral climate. 2003 Students 71% 2.3 0.9 1004
            Source:      2003 Study of Ethics
·         The actual question on the questionnaire was “To what extent are ethical standards influenced by “

 

 

TABLE 7B.       PERCENT OF THE STUDENTS IN 2003 PROVIDING THEIR DEGREE OF

                           AGREEMENT WITH EACH STATEMENT (1=SA;  5=SD)

Q#

QUESTION

Year

Type

%

SA

%

A

%

NO

%

D

%

SD

n=

   1

The corporation has a responsibility to take the lead in solving major social problems such as pollution, discrimination, and safety.

2003

Students

23

54

11

11

1

1009

   2

The corporation has a responsibility to not become involved in solving social problems unless doing so becomes a cost of doing business or the opportunity to earn a profit.

2003

Students

3

22

20

45

10

1009

   3

The corporation has the responsibility to get involved in social responsibility projects because outside pressures make such  an involvement a cost of doing business.

2003

Students

7

53

25

13

1

1009

   4

The corporation has a responsibility to promote equal opportunity in hiring and promotion.

2003

Students

64

29

4

2

1

1009

   5

The corporation has a responsibility to promote conservation of energy even if doing so means a reduction in profits.

2003

Students

20

46

19

14

1

1009

   6

The corporation has a responsibility to conserve natural resources, even if doing so means a reduction in profits.

2003

Students

23

49

17

11

1

1009

   7

The corporation has a responsibility to clean up or avoid causing air, noise, and water pollution even if doing so means a reduction in profits.

2003

Students

30

53

10

6

1

2003

   8

The corporation has a responsibility to contribute money and management time to civic activities in communities where the firm has plants or offices.

2003

Students

19

54

17

8

1

1009

   9

The corporation has a responsibility to help minority owned businesses.

2003

Students

8

22

39

24

7

1009

10

The corporation has a responsibility to be truthful in advertising.

2003

Students

59

35

4

1

0

1009

11

The typical business executive has two sets of ethical standards, one which he/she applies to business activities and another which is applied to his/her private life.

2003

Students

16

44

13

21

6

1009

12

Ethical standards in business are lower than in government.

2003

Students

3

17

28

44

9

1009

13

Ethical standards in business are lower than in most religious organizations.

2003

Students

15

40

23

18

4

1009

14

Ethical standards in business are lower than in the typical American family.

2003

Students

8

38

28

24

3

1009

15

The ethical standards used in business are as high as those practiced with family and friends.

2003

Students

5

19

24

46

7

1009

16

Occasionally, business people make decisions that are right for business but which are inconsistent with their personal ethical principles.

2003

Students

17

72

7

4

0

1009

17

Much advertising done by business is misleading to the consumer.

2003

Students

10

50

17

22

1

1009

18

Effective advertising may have to be somewhat misleading.  

2003

Students

4

32

14

42

9

1009

19

It is in the long run self-interest of business to protect the customer.

2003

Students

26

50

13

10

1

1009

20

The average customer is less ethical in dealing with business than the business is in dealing with that customer.

2003

Students

5

26

29

37

4

1009

21

No employee should be required to engage in business practices that employee considers unethical.

2003

Students

41

43

8

7

1

1009

22

In accepting an employment offer each employee implicitly agrees to abide by the ethical standards of the employer, even if the company standards differ from those of the employee.

2003

Students

10

45

18

24

4

1009

23

Wages and salaries should vary according to an employee’s productivity. 

2003

Students

30

54

9

6

1

1009

24

Wages and salaries should vary according to both the employee’s productivity and years of service with the firm.

2003

Students

25

56

9

9

1

1009

25

Wages and salaries should vary primarily with the employee's years of service with the firm.

2003

Students

6

30

18

40

7

1009

26

Labor unions serve a useful purpose by prodding a particular management into fulfilling its responsibilities to labor.

2003

Students

5

42

30

16

7

1009

2003

Students

5

42

30

16

7

1009

27

The corporation should seek to maximize short run profits.

2003

Students

3

31

28

33

5

1009

28

The corporation should seek to earn a satisfactory rate of return for stockholders.

2003

Students

14

69

12

4

0

1009

29

The ethical standards in competition are determined by the least ethical competitor.  If one firm engages in unethical conduct, the others will have to follow to survive.

2003

Students

4

16

17

43

19

1009

39

All institutions in our society should seek to protect and promote the interests of individuals.

2003

Students

15

48

18

18

1

1009

40

Individual freedom may have to be partly restricted in order for organizations to effectively function.

2003

Students

6

44

18

26

6

1009

41

Government should redistribute income in order to assure a minimum standard of living for all citizens.

2003

Students

6

22

22

30

20

1009

42

Government should provide incentives for business to get involved in solving social problems. 

2003

Students

16

55

15

11

3

1009

43

Truth in lending regulations is needed to protect the customer.

2003

Students

17

58

22

3

0

1009

44

Antitrust laws prohibiting price fixing benefit the customer. 

2003

Students

19

48

26

5

1

1009

45

Lazy or incompetent employees should be fired.

2003

Students

39

43

12

5

1

1009

46

A company should have formal policies to guarantee that every employee has an equal opportunity for promotion, pay increases, and other rewards provided by the firm.

2003

Students

44

44

8

3

1

1009

47

The corporation should seek to maximize long run profits. 

2003

Students

45

43

10

1

0

1009

30

* Ethical standards are influenced by peer group pressures?

2003

Students

13

62

14

10

2

1004

31

* Ethical standards are influenced by prevailing industry practice?

2003

Students

20

67

9

4

0

1004

32

* Ethical standards are influenced by perceived preference of top executives?

2003

Students

29

57

10

4

1

1004

33

* Ethical standards are influenced by family experiences? 

2003

Students

11

47

20

21

1

1004

34

* Ethical standards are influenced by church experiences?

2003

Students

8

35

26

27

4

1004

35

* Ethical standards are influenced by your educational experiences? 

2003

Students

14

64

12

9

1

1004

36

* Ethical standards are influenced by company's ethical code or policy?

2003

Students

19

61

12

7

1

1004

37

* Ethical standards are influenced by professional ethical code?

2003

Students

19

65

9

6

1

1004

38

* Ethical standards are influenced by society's moral climate? 

2003

Students

14

57

16

12

2

1004

Source:       2003 Study of Ethics

 

* The actual question on the questionnaire was “To what extent are ethical standards influenced by…”