SECTION 8:

 

FOCUS ON ALL THREE GROUPS

 

FOR ALL YEARS

 

SECTION 8:

 

FOCUS ON ALL THREE GROUPS

FOR ALL YEARS

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

 

In this section, the focus is only on all three groups for all of the respective years.  Table 8A presents a summary version of the information for each of the 47 attitudinal questions.  For each question, the percent that agreed with each statement is given.  In addition, the average response (low is positive) and the standard deviation for each question are provided.  The number of responses completes the information for each group for each question.  Questions 30 to 38 are given at the end of the table since their answers should have reflected “to what extent” instead of a SA to SD perspective.  See Table 8B for a clearer understanding of these questions.  Table 8B gives the percentage of respondents who either Strongly Agreed, Agree, gave No Opinion, Disagreed or Strongly Disagreed for each question. 

 

 

 

ANALYSIS

 

 

 

 One can examine the differences in the actual responses in these two tables depending upon his or her interest in the particular question and/or group.  A detailed analysis of the information in this section is beyond the scope of the project.

 

 

TABLE 8A.     FOR ALL YEARS, PERCENT OF EACH OF THE RESPONDING
                           GROUPS AGREEING WITH EACH STATEMENT    (1=SA;  5=SD)
Q# QUESTION Year Type % Agree Mean Std. Dev. n=
1 The corporation has a responsibility to take the lead in solving major social problems such as pollution, discrimination, and safety. 2003 Business Leaders 76% 2.1 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 67% 2.4 1.2 269
2003 Students 77% 2.2 0.9 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 62% 2.6 1.4 439
1988 Business Leaders 76% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 70% NI NI 119
 
2 The corporation has a responsibility to not become involved in solving social problems unless doing so becomes a cost of doing business or the opportunity to earn a profit. 2003 Business Leaders 11% 4.0 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 19% 3.8 1.1 269
2003 Students 25% 3.4 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 18% 3.8 1.2 438
1988 Business Leaders 11% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 26% NI NI 119
 
3 The corporation has the responsibility to get involved in social responsibility projects because outside pressures make such  an involvement a cost of doing business. 2003 Business Leaders 35% 3.1 0.9 66
2003 Faculty 58% 2.7 1.0 269
2003 Students 60% 2.5 0.9 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 73% 2.4 1.2 439
1988 Business Leaders 46% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 42% NI NI 119
 
4 The corporation has a responsibility to promote equal opportunity in hiring and promotion. 2003 Business Leaders 99% 1.3 0.5 66
2003 Faculty 95% 1.5 0.7 269
2003 Students 93% 1.5 0.8 1009
1995 Students NI 1.7 0.7 191
1989 Faculty 94% 1.7 1.1 440
1988 Business Leaders 97% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 97% NI NI 119
5 The corporation has a responsibility to promote conservation of energy even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Business Leaders 71% 2.4 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 68% 2.4 1.1 269
2003 Students 66% 2.3 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI 1.9 0.8 191
1989 Faculty 74% 2.3 1.2 440
1988 Business Leaders 67% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 67% NI NI 119
 
6 The corporation has a responsibility to conserve natural resources, even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Business Leaders 70% 2.4 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 73% 2.2 1.1 269
2003 Students 72% 2.2 0.9 1009
1995 Students NI 1.9 0.7 191
1989 Faculty 81% 2.1 1.2 440
1988 Business Leaders 74% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 67% NI NI 119
 
7 The corporation has a responsibility to clean up or avoid causing air, noise, and water pollution even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Business Leaders 92% 1.9 0.8 66
2003 Faculty 81% 2.0 1.0 269
2003 Students 83% 1.9 0.8 1009
1995 Students NI 1.6 0.6 191
1989 Faculty 90% 1.9 1.1 440
1988 Business Leaders 93% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 86% NI NI 119
8 The corporation has a responsibility to contribute money and management time to civic activities in communities where the firm has plants or offices. 2003 Business Leaders 88% 1.7 0.9 66
2003 Faculty 80% 2.0 0.9 269
2003 Students 73% 2.2 0.9 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 76% 2.3 1.1 440
1988 Business Leaders 90% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 90% NI NI 119
9 The corporation has a responsibility to help minority owned businesses. 2003 Business Leaders 56% 2.6 1.1 66
2003 Faculty 42% 2.8 1.0 269
2003 Students 30% 3.0 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 41% 3.0 1.2 439
1988 Business Leaders 43% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 38% NI NI 119
 
10 The corporation has a responsibility to be truthful in advertising. 2003 Business Leaders 99% 1.2 0.4 66
2003 Faculty 99% 1.2 0.5 269
2003 Students 94% 1.5 0.7 1009
1995 Students NI 1.7 0.6 191
1989 Faculty 98% 1.5 1.0 440
1988 Business Leaders 99% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 70% NI NI 119
 
11 The typical business executive has two sets of ethical standards, one which he/she applies to business activities and another which is applied to his/her private life. 2003 Business Leaders 12% 4.3 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 38% 3.2 1.2 269
2003 Students 60% 2.6 1.2 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 46% 3.1 1.5 432
1988 Business Leaders 16% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 20% NI NI 119
12 Ethical standards in business are lower than in government. 2003 Business Leaders 11% 4.2 0.9 66
2003 Faculty 15% 3.7 1.0 269
2003 Students 20% 3.4 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 9% 4.1 1.1 436
1988 Business Leaders 5% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 3% NI NI 119
13 Ethical standards in business are lower than in most religious organizations. 2003 Business Leaders 28% 3.5 1.2 66
2003 Faculty 51% 2.9 1.2 269
2003 Students 55% 2.6 1.1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 50% 3.0 1.4 436
1988 Business Leaders 29% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 29% NI NI 119
 
14 Ethical standards in business are lower than in the typical American family. 2003 Business Leaders 19% 3.8 1.1 66
2003 Faculty 36% 3.1 1.1 269
2003 Students 46% 2.8 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI 2.8 0.9 191
1989 Faculty 39% 3.2 1.4 436
1988 Business Leaders 15% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 16% NI NI 119
 
15 The ethical standards used in business are as high as those practiced with family and friends. 2003 Business Leaders 67% 2.5 0.9 66
2003 Faculty 34% 3.2 1.0 269
2003 Students 24% 3.3 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI 2.3 1.0 191
1989 Faculty 18% 3.8 1.2 436
1988 Business Leaders 93% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 94% NI NI 119
16 Occasionally, business people make decisions that are right for business but which are inconsistent with their personal ethical principles. 2003 Business Leaders 67% 2.5 0.9 66
2003 Faculty 34% 3.2 1.0 269
2003 Students 24% 3.3 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI 2.3 1.0 191
1989 Faculty 18% 3.8 1.2 436
1988 Business Leaders 93% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 94% NI NI 119
 
17 Much advertising done by business is misleading to the consumer. 2003 Business Leaders 29% 3.3 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 53% 2.8 1.1 269
2003 Students 60% 2.5 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 62% 2.7 1.4 438
1988 Business Leaders 39% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 23% NI NI 119
 
18 Effective advertising may have to be somewhat misleading.   2003 Business Leaders 8% 4.1 0.8 66
2003 Faculty 7% 4.1 0.8 269
2003 Students 36% 3.2 1.1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 13% 3.9 1.1 438
1988 Business Leaders 8% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 9% NI NI 119
 
19 It is in the long run self-interest of business to protect the customer. 2003 Business Leaders 91% 1.8 0.8 66
2003 Faculty 92% 1.6 0.8 269
2003 Students 76% 2.1 0.9 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 91% 1.8 1.3 435
1988 Business Leaders 96% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 98% NI NI 119
20 The average customer is less ethical in dealing with business than the business is in dealing with that customer. 2003 Business Leaders 31% 3.1 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 20% 3.3 0.9 269
2003 Students 31% 3.1 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 33% 3.2 1.3 436
1988 Business Leaders 42% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 53% NI NI 119
 
21 No employee should be required to engage in business practices that employee considers unethical. 2003 Business Leaders 87% 1.7 0.9 66
2003 Faculty 81% 1.9 1.0 269
2003 Students 84% 1.8 0.9 1009
1995 Students NI 1.8 0.8 191
1989 Faculty 81% 2.0 1.4 437
1988 Business Leaders 87% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 89% NI NI 119
 
22 In accepting an employment offer each employee implicitly agrees to abide by the ethical standards of the employer, even if the company standards differ from those of the employee. 2003 Business Leaders 53% 2.8 1.2 66
2003 Faculty 43% 3.1 1.2 269
2003 Students 55% 2.7 1.1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 40% 3.2 1.4 438
1988 Business Leaders 51% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 42% NI NI 119
 
23 Wages and salaries should vary according to an employee’s productivity.  2003 Business Leaders 88% 1.8 0.8 66
2003 Faculty 91% 1.8 0.7 269
2003 Students 84% 1.9 0.8 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 89% 1.9 1.2 437
1988 Business Leaders 96% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 94% NI NI 119
24 Wages and salaries should vary according to both the employee’s productivity and years of service with the firm. 2003 Business Leaders 49% 2.9 1.1 66
2003 Faculty 54% 2.7 1.1 269
2003 Students 81% 2.1 0.9 1009
1995 Students NI 2.0 0.8 191
1989 Faculty 63% 2.7 1.3 438
1988 Business Leaders 48% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 53% NI NI 119
 
25 Wages and salaries should vary primarily with the employee's years of service with the firm. 2003 Business Leaders 3% 4.2 0.7 66
2003 Faculty 3% 4.1 0.7 269
2003 Students 36% 3.1 1.1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 3% 4.3 0.9 438
1988 Business Leaders 4% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 1% NI NI 119
 
26 Labor unions serve a useful purpose by prodding a particular management into fulfilling its responsibilities to labor. 2003 Business Leaders 29% 3.6 1.2 66
2003 Faculty 54% 2.8 1.1 269
2003 Students 47% 2.8 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 61% 2.8 1.3 438
1988 Business Leaders 26% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 21% NI NI 119
 
27 The corporation should seek to maximize short run profits. 2003 Business Leaders 29% 3.4 1.2 66
2003 Faculty 16% 3.9 1.1 269
2003 Students 34% 3.1 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 10% 4.1 1.0 441
1988 Business Leaders 13% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 15% NI NI 119
28 The corporation should seek to earn a satisfactory rate of return for stockholders. 2003 Business Leaders 99% 1.5 0.5 66
2003 Faculty 95% 1.8 0.6 269
2003 Students 83% 2.1 0.7 1009
1995 Students NI 2.0 0.6 191
1989 Faculty 93% 1.9 0.1 440
1988 Business Leaders 98% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 100% NI NI 119
 
29 The ethical standards in competition are determined by the least ethical competitor.  If one firm engages in unethical conduct, the others will have to follow to survive. 2003 Business Leaders 0% 4.5 0.6 66
2003 Faculty 7% 4.0 0.8 269
2003 Students 20% 3.6 1.1 1009
1995 Students NI 3.5 1.1 191
1989 Faculty 10% 4.1 1.1 440
1988 Business Leaders 6% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 5% NI NI 119
 
39 All institutions in our society should seek to protect and promote the interests of individuals. 2003 Business Leaders 34% 3.1 1.0 65
2003 Faculty 43% 2.8 1.1 268
2003 Students 63% 2.4 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty NA N/A N/A N/A
1988 Business Leaders 76% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 77% NI NI 119
 
40 Individual freedom may have to be partly restricted in order for organizations to effectively function. 2003 Business Leaders 56% 2.7 1.1 66
2003 Faculty 69% 2.6 1.1 269
2003 Students 50% 2.8 1.1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty NA N/A N/A N/A
1988 Business Leaders 70% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 84% NI NI 119
41 Government should redistribute income in order to assure a minimum standard of living for all citizens. 2003 Business Leaders 23% 3.7 1.1 66
2003 Faculty 35% 3.3 1.3 269
2003 Students 28% 3.4 1.2 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty NA N/A N/A N/A
1988 Business Leaders 15% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 12% NI NI 119
 
42 Government should provide incentives for business to get involved in solving social problems.  2003 Business Leaders 55% 2.8 1.1 66
2003 Faculty 74% 2.4 1.1 269
2003 Students 71% 2.3 0.9 1009
1995 Students NI 2.0 0.8 191
1989 Faculty NA N/A N/A N/A
1988 Business Leaders 61% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 54% NI NI 119
 
43 Truth in lending regulations are needed to protect the customer. 2003 Business Leaders 86% 2.0 0.8 66
2003 Faculty 88% 1.9 0.8 269
2003 Students 75% 2.1 0.7 1009
1995 Students NI 1.8 0.7 191
1989 Faculty NA N/A N/A N/A
1988 Business Leaders 78% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 68% NI NI 119
 
44 Antitrust laws prohibiting price fixing benefit the customer.  2003 Business Leaders 85% 2.1 0.8 66
2003 Faculty 82% 2.0 0.9 269
2003 Students 67% 2.2 0.8 1009
1995 Students NI 1.9 0.8 191
1989 Faculty NA N/A N/A N/A
1988 Business Leaders 79% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 68% NI NI 119
45 Lazy or incompetent employees should be fired. 2003 Business Leaders 86% 1.9 0.9 66
2003 Faculty 87% 1.8 0.8 269
2003 Students 82% 1.9 0.9 1009
1995 Students NI 2.3 1.0 191
1989 Faculty NA N/A N/A N/A
1988 Business Leaders 81% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 84% NI NI 119
 
46 A company should have formal policies to guarantee that every employee has an equal opportunity for promotion, pay increases, and other rewards provided by the firm. 2003 Business Leaders 86% 1.8 1.0 66
2003 Faculty 91% 1.7 0.8 269
2003 Students 88% 1.7 0.8 1009
1995 Students NI 1.8 0.8 191
1989 Faculty NA N/A N/A N/A
1988 Business Leaders 91% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 89% NI NI 119
 
47 The corporation should seek to maximize long run profits.  2003 Business Leaders 93% 1.7 0.8 66
2003 Faculty 92% 1.6 0.8 269
2003 Students 88% 1.7 0.7 1009
1995 Students NI 1.8 0.6 191
1989 Faculty NA N/A N/A N/A
1988 Business Leaders 96% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 94% NI NI 119
 
30 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by peer group pressures? 2003 Business Leaders 55% 2.8 1.0 64
2003 Faculty 87% 2.0 0.8 252
2003 Students 75% 2.2 0.9 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A
1989 Faculty 94% 1.7 1.1 439
1988 Business Leaders 84% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 82% NI NI 119
 
31 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by prevailing industry practice? 2003 Business Leaders 66% 2.6 1.0 64
2003 Faculty 91% 1.9 0.6 252
2003 Students 87% 2.0 0.7 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A
1989 Faculty 90% 1.9 1.1 440
1988 Business Leaders 70% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 70% NI NI 119
 
32 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by perceived preference of top executives? 2003 Business Leaders 81% 2.2 0.9 64
2003 Faculty 89% 1.8 0.7 253
2003 Students 86% 1.9 0.8 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A
1989 Faculty 92% 1.7 1.2 437
1988 Business Leaders 82% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 74% NI NI 119
 
33 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by family experiences?  2003 Business Leaders 83% 2.2 0.8 64
2003 Faculty 72% 2.3 1.0 254
2003 Students 58% 2.6 1.0 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A
1989 Faculty 83% 1.9 1.2 440
1988 Business Leaders 93% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 92% NI NI 119
 
34 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by church experiences? 2003 Business Leaders 74% 2.4 0.9 64
2003 Faculty 59% 2.6 1.0 254
2003 Students 43% 2.9 1.0 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A
1989 Faculty 70% 2.3 1.3 440
1988 Business Leaders 74% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 84% NI NI 119
 
35 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by your educational experiences?  2003 Business Leaders 83% 2.2 0.7 64
2003 Faculty 73% 2.3 0.8 254
2003 Students 78% 2.2 0.8 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A
1989 Faculty 65% 2.5 1.3 440
1988 Business Leaders 87% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 87% NI NI 119
 
36 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by company's ethical code or policy? 2003 Business Leaders 90% 1.9 0.8 64
2003 Faculty 75% 2.3 0.9 254
2003 Students 80% 2.1 0.8 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A
1989 Faculty 76% 2.3 1.3 439
1988 Business Leaders 89% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 90% NI NI 119
 
37 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by professional ethical code? 2003 Business Leaders 85% 2.0 0.8 64
2003 Faculty 78% 2.2 0.9 254
2003 Students 84% 2.1 0.8 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A
1989 Faculty 76% 2.3 1.3 440
1988 Business Leaders 88% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 92% NI NI 119
38 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by society's moral climate?  2003 Business Leaders 75% 2.3 0.9 64
2003 Faculty 80% 2.1 0.8 255
2003 Students 71% 2.3 0.9 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A
1989 Faculty 78% 2.2 1.3 439
1988 Business Leaders 80% NI NI 138
1983 Business Leaders 73% NI NI 119

Source:       2003 Study of Ethics

 

 

TABLE 8B.  FOR ALL SEVEN YEARS, PERCENT OF EACH OF THE THREE GROUPS PROVIDING
                           THEIR DEGREE OF AGREEMENT WITH EACH STATEMENT (1=SA;  5=SD)
Q#              QUESTION Year Type %SA %A %NO %D %SD n=
1 The corporation has a responsibility to take the lead in solving major social problems such as pollution, discrimination, and safety. 2003 Bus. Leaders 29 47 12 9 3 66
2003 Faculty 23 44 9 20 4 269
2003 Students 23 54 11 11 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 21 41 7 25 5 439
1988 Bus. Leaders 20 56 5 17 2 138
1983 Bus. Leaders 13 57 5 21 3 119
 
2 The corporation has a responsibility to not become involved in solving social problems unless doing so becomes a cost of doing business or the opportunity to earn a profit. 2003 Bus. Leaders 3 8 8 52 30 66
2003 Faculty 3 16 7 52 23 269
2003 Students 3 22 20 45 10 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 4 14 5 54 22 438
1988 Bus. Leaders 2 9 7 69 12 138
1983 Bus. Leaders 3 23 5 56 12 119
 
3 The corporation has the responsibility to get involved in social responsibility projects because outside pressures make such  an involvement a cost of doing business. 2003 Bus. Leaders 2 33 21 42 2 66
2003 Faculty 7 51 15 23 5 269
2003 Students 7 53 25 13 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 12 61 8 16 2 439
1988 Bus. Leaders 1 45 8 44 2 138
1983 Bus. Leaders 4 38 13 41 3 119
 
4 The corporation has a responsibility to promote equal opportunity in hiring and promotion. 2003 Bus. Leaders 76 23 0 2 0 66
2003 Faculty 64 31 3 2 1 269
2003 Students 64 29 4 2 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 43 51 3 2 1 440
1988 Bus. Leaders 35 62 2 1 0 138
1983 Bus. Leaders 31 66 0 2 0 119
5 The corporation has a responsibility to promote conservation of energy even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Bus. Leaders 15 56 8 18 3 66
2003 Faculty 23 45 11 18 3 269
2003 Students 20 46 19 14 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 22 52 10 14 2 440
1988 Bus. Leaders 9 58 15 17 1 138
1983 Bus. Leaders 9 58 14 15 3 119
 
6 The corporation has a responsibility to conserve natural resources, even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Bus. Leaders 11 59 11 15 5 66
2003 Faculty 26 47 7 16 3 269
2003 Students 23 49 17 11 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 26 55 7 9 2 440
1988 Bus. Leaders 15 59 16 9 1 138
1983 Bus. Leaders 10 57 17 12 3 119
 
7 The corporation has a responsibility to clean up or avoid causing air, noise, and water pollution even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Bus. Leaders 26 66 2 5 2 66
2003 Faculty 35 46 5 12 2 269
2003 Students 30 53 10 6 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 33 57 4 5 1 440
1988 Bus. Leaders 19 74 4 3 0 138
1983 Bus. Leaders 14 72 6 6 1 119
 
8 The corporation has a responsibility to contribute money and management time to civic activities in communities where the firm has plants or offices. 2003 Bus. Leaders 53 35 6 5 2 66
2003 Faculty 31 49 9 9 1 269
2003 Students 19 54 17 8 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 18 58 14 9 2 440
1988 Bus. Leaders 25 65 4 7 0 138
1983 Bus. Leaders 26 64 5 4 0 119
9 The corporation has a responsibility to help minority owned businesses. 2003 Bus. Leaders 14 42 24 15 5 66
2003 Faculty 9 33 31 23 5 269
2003 Students 8 22 39 24 7 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 7 34 29 25 5 439
1988 Bus. Leaders 5 38 25 30 3 138
1983 Bus. Leaders 6 32 26 30 5 119
 
10 The corporation has a responsibility to be truthful in
advertising.
2003 Bus. Leaders 85 14 2 0 0 66
2003 Faculty 82 17 1 0 0 269
2003 Students 59 35 4 1 0 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 58 40 1 0 0 440
1988 Bus. Leaders 54 45 1 1 0 138
1983 Bus. Leaders 13 57 5 21 3 119
 
11 The typical business executive has two sets of ethical standards, one which he/she applies to business activities and another which is applied to his/her private life. 2003 Bus. Leaders 0 12 2 33 53 66
2003 Faculty 8 30 12 35 16 269
2003 Students 16 44 13 21 6 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 9 37 8 40 5 432
1988 Bus. Leaders 6 10 5 52 27 138
1983 Bus. Leaders 3 17 3 43 33 119
 
12 Ethical standards in business are lower than in government. 2003 Bus. Leaders 0 11 5 44 41 66
2003 Faculty 3 12 16 49 20 269
2003 Students 3 17 28 44 9 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 3 6 10 56 24 436
1988 Bus. Leaders 1 4 3 42 50 138
1983 Bus. Leaders 1 2 3 36 59 119
13 Ethical standards in business are lower than in most
religious organizations.
2003 Bus. Leaders 5 23 15 32 26 66
2003 Faculty 10 41 12 29 8 269
2003 Students 15 40 23 18 4 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 7 43 13 29 7 436
1988 Bus. Leaders 4 25 14 44 12 138
1983 Bus. Leaders 0 29 21 39 10 119
 
14 Ethical standards in business are lower than in the typical American family. 2003 Bus. Leaders 2 17 11 45 26 66
2003 Faculty 6 30 22 35 7 269
2003 Students 8 38 28 24 3 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 6 33 14 41 5 436
1988 Bus. Leaders 4 11 14 58 13 138
1983 Bus. Leaders 0 16 11 60 12 119
 
15 The ethical standards used in business are as high as
those practiced with family and friends.
2003 Bus. Leaders 6 61 9 24 0 66
2003 Faculty 4 30 16 45 4 269
2003 Students 5 19 24 46 7 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 1 17 11 52 18 436
1988 Bus. Leaders 38 55 3 2 2 138
1983 Bus. Leaders 37 57 3 3 0 119
 
16 Occasionally, business people make decisions that are right for business but which are inconsistent with their personal ethical principles. 2003 Bus. Leaders 6 53 6 29 6 66
2003 Faculty 13 72 7 7 1 269
2003 Students 17 72 7 4 0 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 1 18 7 48 25 436
1988 Bus. Leaders 1 12 4 52 30 138
1983 Bus. Leaders 3 16 1 59 20 119
17 Much advertising done by business is misleading to the consumer. 2003 Bus. Leaders 3 26 15 53 3 66
2003 Faculty 7 46 9 32 6 269
2003 Students 10 50 17 22 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 12 50 5 29 3 438
1988 Bus. Leaders 7 32 10 46 5 138
1983 Bus. Leaders 3 20 10 50 17 119
 
18 Effective advertising may have to be somewhat misleading.   2003 Bus. Leaders 0 8 8 56 29 66
2003 Faculty 1 6 6 59 27 269
2003 Students 4 32 14 42 9 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 1 12 1 64 21 438
1988 Bus. Leaders 0 8 6 60 26 138
1983 Bus. Leaders 2 7 6 63 22 119
 
19 It is in the long run self-interest of business to protect the customer. 2003 Bus. Leaders 35 56 3 6 0 66
2003 Faculty 50 42 5 3 0 269
2003 Students 26 50 13 10 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 45 46 3 4 1 435
1988 Bus. Leaders 53 43 3 1 1 138
1983 Bus. Leaders 48 50 1 1 0 119
 
20 The average customer is less ethical in dealing with business than the business is in dealing with that customer. 2003 Bus. Leaders 5 26 30 33 6 66
2003 Faculty 3 17 34 43 3 269
2003 Students 5 26 29 37 4 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 4 29 22 38 6 436
1988 Bus. Leaders 9 33 22 33 2 138
1983 Bus. Leaders 12 41 22 24 1 119
21 No employee should be required to engage in business practices that employee considers unethical. 2003 Bus. Leaders 55 32 5 9 0 66
2003 Faculty 42 39 6 13 0 269
2003 Students 41 43 8 7 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 41 40 7 10 1 437
1988 Bus. Leaders 43 44 4 7 1 138
1983 Bus. Leaders 42 47 3 8 1 119
 
22 In accepting an employment offer each employee
implicitly agrees to abide by the ethical standards of
the employer, even if the company standards differ
from those of the employee.
2003 Bus. Leaders 14 39 12 27 8 66
2003 Faculty 9 34 9 37 11 269
2003 Students 10 45 18 24 4 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 7 33 8 42 9 438
1988 Bus. Leaders 7 44 9 34 6 138
1983 Bus. Leaders 7 35 13 36 9 119
 
23 Wages and salaries should vary according to an employee’s productivity.  2003 Bus. Leaders 36 52 6 6 0 66
2003 Faculty 39 52 6 3 1 269
2003 Students 30 54 9 6 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
1989 Faculty 35 54 5 4 1 437
1988 Bus. Leaders 34 62 1 3 1 138
1983 Bus. Leaders 38 56 6 0 0 119
 
24 Wages and salaries should vary according to both the employee’s productivity and years of service with the firm. 2003 Bus. Leaders