SECTION 10:

 

FOCUS ON FACULTY

 

FOR TWO YEARS


 

 

SECTION 10:

 

FOCUS ON FACULTY

FOR ALL YEARS

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

 

In this section, the focus is only on the faculty for two years.  Table 10A presents a summary version of the information for each of the 47 attitudinal questions.  For each question, the percent that agreed with each statement is given.  In addition, the average response (low is positive) and the standard deviation for each question are provided.  The number of responses completes the information for each group for each question.  Questions 30 to 38 are given at the end of the table since their answers should have reflected “to what extent” instead of a SA to SD perspective.  See Table 10B for a clearer understanding of these questions.  Table 10B gives the percentage of respondents who either Strongly Agreed, Agree, gave No Opinion, Disagreed or Strongly Disagreed for each question. 

 

 

 

ANALYSIS

 

 

 

 One can examine the differences in the actual responses in these two tables depending upon his or her interest in the particular question and/or group.  A detailed analysis of the information in this section is beyond the scope of the project.

 

 

TABLE 10A.   FOR ALL YEARS, PERCENT OF EACH OF THE RESPONDING
                             GROUPS AGREEING WITH EACH STATEMENT   (1=SA;  5=SD)
Q# QUESTION Year Type % Agree Mean Std. Dev. n=
1 The corporation has a responsibility to take the lead in solving major social problems such as pollution, discrimination, and safety. 2003 Faculty 67% 2.4 1.2 269
1989 Faculty 62% 2.6 1.4 439
 
2 The corporation has a responsibility to not become involved in solving social problems unless doing so becomes a cost of doing business or the opportunity to earn a profit. 2003 Faculty 19% 3.8 1.1 269
1989 Faculty 18% 3.8 1.2 438
 
3 The corporation has the responsibility to get involved in social responsibility projects because outside pressures make such  an involvement a cost of doing business. 2003 Faculty 58% 2.7 1.0 269
1989 Faculty 73% 2.4 1.2 439
 
4 The corporation has a responsibility to promote equal opportunity in hiring and promotion. 2003 Faculty 95% 1.5 0.7 269
1989 Faculty 94% 1.7 1.1 440
 
5 The corporation has a responsibility to promote conservation of energy even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Faculty 68% 2.4 1.1 269
1989 Faculty 74% 2.3 1.2 440
 
6 The corporation has a responsibility to conserve natural resources, even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Faculty 73% 2.2 1.1 269
1989 Faculty 81% 2.1 1.2 440
 
7 The corporation has a responsibility to clean up or avoid causing air, noise, and water pollution even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Faculty 81% 2.0 1.0 269
1989 Faculty 90% 1.9 1.1 440
 
8 The corporation has a responsibility to contribute money and management time to civic activities in communities where the firm has plants or offices. 2003 Faculty 80% 2.0 0.9 269
1989 Faculty 76% 2.3 1.1 440
 
9 The corporation has a responsibility to help minority owned businesses. 2003 Faculty 42% 2.8 1.0 269
1989 Faculty 41% 3.0 1.2 439
 
10 The corporation has a responsibility to be truthful in advertising. 2003 Faculty 99% 1.2 0.5 269
1989 Faculty 98% 1.5 1.0 440
 
11 The typical business executive has two sets of ethical standards, one which he/she applies to business activities and another which is applied to his/her private life. 2003 Faculty 38% 3.2 1.2 269
1989 Faculty 46% 3.1 1.5 432
 
12 Ethical standards in business are lower than in government. 2003 Faculty 15% 3.7 1.0 269
1989 Faculty 9% 4.1 1.1 436
 
13 Ethical standards in business are lower than in most religious organizations. 2003 Faculty 51% 2.9 1.2 269
1989 Faculty 50% 3.0 1.4 436
 
14 Ethical standards in business are lower than in the typical American family. 2003 Faculty 36% 3.1 1.1 269
1989 Faculty 39% 3.2 1.4 436
 
15 The ethical standards used in business are as high as those practiced with family and friends. 2003 Faculty 34% 3.2 1.0 269
1989 Faculty 18% 3.8 1.2 436
 
16 Occasionally, business people make decisions that are right for business but which are inconsistent with their personal ethical principles. 2003 Faculty 34% 3.2 1.0 269
1989 Faculty 18% 3.8 1.2 436
17 Much advertising done by business is misleading to the consumer. 2003 Faculty 53% 2.8 1.1 269
1989 Faculty 62% 2.7 1.4 438
 
18 Effective advertising may have to be somewhat misleading.   2003 Faculty 7% 4.1 0.8 269
1989 Faculty 13% 3.9 1.1 438
 
19 It is in the long run self-interest of business to protect the customer. 2003 Faculty 92% 1.6 0.8 269
1989 Faculty 91% 1.8 1.3 435
 
20 The average customer is less ethical in dealing with business than the business is in dealing with that customer. 2003 Faculty 20% 3.3 0.9 269
1989 Faculty 33% 3.2 1.3 436
 
21 No employee should be required to engage in business practices that employee considers unethical. 2003 Faculty 81% 1.9 1.0 269
1989 Faculty 81% 2.0 1.4 437
 
22 In accepting an employment offer each employee implicitly agrees to abide by the ethical standards of the employer, even if the company standards differ from those of the employee. 2003 Faculty 43% 3.1 1.2 269
1989 Faculty 40% 3.2 1.4 438
 
23 Wages and salaries should vary according to an employee’s productivity.  2003 Faculty 91% 1.8 0.7 269
1989 Faculty 89% 1.9 1.2 437
 
24 Wages and salaries should vary according to both the employee’s productivity and years of service with the firm. 2003 Faculty 54% 2.7 1.1 269
1989 Faculty 63% 2.7 1.3 438
 
25 Wages and salaries should vary primarily with the employee's years of service with the firm. 2003 Faculty 3% 4.1 0.7 269
1989 Faculty 3% 4.3 0.9 438
26 Labor unions serve a useful purpose by prodding a particular management into fulfilling its responsibilities to labor. 2003 Faculty 54% 2.8 1.1 269
1989 Faculty 61% 2.8 1.3 438
 
27 The corporation should seek to maximize short run profits. 2003 Faculty 16% 3.9 1.1 269
1989 Faculty 10% 4.1 1.0 441
 
28 The corporation should seek to earn a satisfactory rate of return for stockholders. 2003 Faculty 95% 1.8 0.6 269
1989 Faculty 93% 1.9 0.1 440
 
29 The ethical standards in competition are determined by the least ethical competitor.  If one firm engages in unethical conduct, the others will have to follow to survive. 2003 Faculty 7% 4.0 0.8 269
1989 Faculty 10% 4.1 1.1 440
 
39 All institutions in our society should seek to protect and promote the interests of individuals. 2003 Faculty 43% 2.8 1.1 268
1989 Faculty NA N/A N/A N/A
 
40 Individual freedom may have to be partly restricted in order for organizations to effectively function. 2003 Faculty 69% 2.6 1.1 269
1989 Faculty NA N/A N/A N/A
 
41 Government should redistribute income in order to assure a minimum standard of living for all citizens. 2003 Faculty 35% 3.3 1.3 269
1989 Faculty NA N/A N/A N/A
 
42 Government should provide incentives for business to get involved in solving social problems.  2003 Faculty 74% 2.4 1.1 269
1989 Faculty NA N/A N/A N/A
  
43 Truth in lending regulations are needed to protect the customer. 2003 Faculty 88% 1.9 0.8 269
1989 Faculty NA N/A N/A N/A
44 Antitrust laws prohibiting price fixing benefit the customer.  2003 Faculty 82% 2.0 0.9 269
1989 Faculty NA N/A N/A N/A
 
45 Lazy or incompetent employees should be fired. 2003 Faculty 87% 1.8 0.8 269
1989 Faculty NA N/A N/A N/A
 
46 A company should have formal policies to guarantee that every employee has an equal opportunity for promotion, pay increases, and other rewards provided by the firm. 2003 Faculty 91% 1.7 0.8 269
1989 Faculty NA N/A N/A N/A
 
47 The corporation should seek to maximize long run profits.  2003 Faculty 92% 1.6 0.8 269
1989 Faculty NA N/A N/A N/A
 
30 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by peer group pressures? 2003 Faculty 87% 2.0 0.8 252
1989 Faculty 94% 1.7 1.1 439
 
31 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by prevailing industry practice? 2003 Faculty 91% 1.9 0.6 252
1989 Faculty 90% 1.9 1.1 440
 
32 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by perceived preference of top executives? 2003 Faculty 89% 1.8 0.7 253
1989 Faculty 92% 1.7 1.2 437
 
33 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by family experiences?  2003 Faculty 72% 2.3 1.0 254
1989 Faculty 83% 1.9 1.2 440
 
34 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by church experiences? 2003 Faculty 59% 2.6 1.0 254
1989 Faculty 70% 2.3 1.3 440
 
35 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by your educational experiences?  2003 Faculty 73% 2.3 0.8 254
1989 Faculty 65% 2.5 1.3 440
 
36 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by company's ethical code or policy? 2003 Faculty 75% 2.3 0.9 254
1989 Faculty 76% 2.3 1.3 439
 
37 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by professional ethical code? 2003 Faculty 78% 2.2 0.9 254
1989 Faculty 76% 2.3 1.3 440
 
38 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by society's moral climate?  2003 Faculty 80% 2.1 0.8 255
1989 Faculty 78% 2.2 1.3 439

Source:       2003 Study of Ethics

 

 

TABLE 10B.    FOR EACH OF THE 2 STUDIES, PERCENT OF THE FACULTY PROVIDING  
                              THEIR DEGREE OF
AGREEMENT WITH EACH STATEMENT (1=SA;  5=SD)
Q# QUESTION Year Type %SA %A %NO %D %SD n=
   1 The corporation has a responsibility to take the lead in solving major social problems such as pollution, discrimination, and safety. 2003 Faculty 23 44 9 20 4 269
1989 Faculty 21 41 7 25 5 439
 
   2 The corporation has a responsibility to not become involved in solving social problems unless doing so becomes a cost of doing business or the opportunity to earn a profit. 2003 Faculty 3 16 7 52 23 269
1989 Faculty 4 14 5 54 22 438
 
   3 The corporation has the responsibility to get involved in social responsibility projects because outside pressures make such  an involvement a cost of doing business. 2003 Faculty 7 51 15 23 5 269
1989 Faculty 12 61 8 16 2 439
 
   4 The corporation has a responsibility to promote
equal opportunity in hiring and promotion.
2003 Faculty 64 31 3 2 1 269
1989 Faculty 43 51 3 2 1 440
 
   5 The corporation has a responsibility to promote
conservation of energy even if doing so means a
reduction in profits.
2003 Faculty 23 45 11 18 3 269
1989 Faculty 22 52 10 14 2 440
 
   6 The corporation has a responsibility to conserve
natural resources, even if doing so means a reduction in profits.
2003 Faculty 26 47 7 16 3 269
1989 Faculty 26 55 7 9 2 440
 
   7 The corporation has a responsibility to clean up or avoid causing air, noise, and water pollution even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Faculty 35 46 5 12 2 269
1989 Faculty 33 57 4 5 1 440
 
   8 The corporation has a responsibility to contribute
money and management time to civic activities in
communities where the firm has plants or offices.
2003 Faculty 31 49 9 9 1 269
1989 Faculty 18 58 14 9 2 440
  
   9 The corporation has a responsibility to help minority owned businesses. 2003 Faculty 9 33 31 23 5 269
1989 Faculty 7 34 29 25 5 439
 
10 The corporation has a responsibility to be truthful
in advertising.
2003 Faculty 82 17 1 0 0 269
1989 Faculty 58 40 1 0 0 440
 
11 The typical business executive has two sets of ethical standards, one which he/she applies to business activities and another which is applied to his/her private life. 2003 Faculty 8 30 12 35 16 269
1989 Faculty 9 37 8 40 5 432
 
12 Ethical standards in business are lower than in
government.
2003 Faculty 3 12 16 49 20 269
1989 Faculty 3 6 10 56 24 436
 
13 Ethical standards in business are lower than in
most religious organizations.
2003 Faculty 10 41 12 29 8 269
1989 Faculty 7 43 13 29 7 436
 
14 Ethical standards in business are lower than in
the typical American family.
2003 Faculty 6 30 22 35 7 269
1989 Faculty 6 33 14 41 5 436
 
15 The ethical standards used in business are as high
as those practiced with family and friends.
2003 Faculty 4 30 16 45 4 269
1989 Faculty 1 17 11 52 18 436
   
16 Occasionally, business people make decisions that are right for business but which are inconsistent with their personal ethical principles. 2003 Faculty 13 72 7 7 1 269
1989 Faculty 1 18 7 48 25 436
 
17 Much advertising done by business is misleading
to the consumer.
2003 Faculty 7 46 9 32 6 269
1989 Faculty 12 50 5 29 3 438
 
18 Effective advertising may have to be somewhat
misleading.  
2003 Faculty 1 6 6 59 27 269
1989 Faculty 1 12 1 64 21 438
 
19 It is in the long run self-interest of business to
protect the customer.
2003 Faculty 50 42 5 3 0 269
1989 Faculty 45 46 3 4 1 435
 
20 The average customer is less ethical in dealing
with business than the business is in dealing with
that customer.
2003 Faculty 3 17 34 43 3 269
1989 Faculty 4 29 22 38 6 436
 
21 No employee should be required to engage in
business practices that employee considers
unethical.
2003 Faculty 42 39 6 13 0 269
1989 Faculty 41 40 7 10 1 437
 
22 In accepting an employment offer each employee
implicitly agrees to abide by the ethical standards
of the employer, even if the company standards
differ from those of the employee.
2003 Faculty 9 34 9 37 11 269
1989 Faculty 7 33 8 42 9 438
 
23 Wages and salaries should vary according to an
employee’s productivity. 
2003 Faculty 39 52 6 3 1 269
1989 Faculty 35 54 5 4 1 437
 
24 Wages and salaries should vary according to
both the employee’s productivity and years of
service with the firm.
2003 Faculty 8 46 16 25 5 269
1989 Faculty 9 54 10 24 3 438
 
25 Wages and salaries should vary primarily with
the employee's years of service with the firm.
2003 Faculty 1 2 8 62 27 269
1989 Faculty 0 3 4 60 32 438
 
26 Labor unions serve a useful purpose by prodding
a particular management into fulfilling its
responsibilities to labor.
2003 Faculty 7 47 17 19 10 269
1989 Faculty 7 54 12 19 7 438
 
27 The corporation should seek to maximize short
run profits.
2003 Faculty 3 13 9 45 31 269
1989 Faculty 1 9 8 50 32 441
 
28 The corporation should seek to earn a satisfactory rate of return for stockholders. 2003 Faculty 30 65 2 2 0 269
1989 Faculty 24 69 3 2 1 440
 
29 The ethical standards in competition are determined by the least ethical competitor.  If one firm engages in unethical conduct, the others will have to follow to survive. 2003 Faculty 1 6 6 62 25 269
1989 Faculty 2 8 5 54 31 440
 
39 All institutions in our society should seek to
protect and promote the interests of individuals.
2003 Faculty 12 31 27 27 3 268
1989 Faculty N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
40 Individual freedom may have to be partly restricted in order for organizations to effectively function. 2003 Faculty 7 62 10 13 9 269
1989 Faculty N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
41 Government should redistribute income in order
to assure a minimum standard of living for all citizens.
2003 Faculty 7 28 14 30 21 269
1989 Faculty N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
42 Government should provide incentives for business to get involved in solving social problems.  2003 Faculty 15 59 7 14 5 269
1989 Faculty N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
43 Truth in lending regulations is needed to protect
the customer.
2003 Faculty 33 55 8 3 2 269
1989 Faculty N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
44 Antitrust laws prohibiting price fixing benefit the
customer. 
2003 Faculty 26 56 12 3 3 269
1989 Faculty N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
45 Lazy or incompetent employees should be fired. 2003 Faculty 39 48 8 5 1 269
1989 Faculty N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
46 A company should have formal policies to
guarantee that every employee has an equal
opportunity for promotion, pay increases,
and other rewards provided by the firm.
2003 Faculty 49 42 5 1 3 269
1989 Faculty N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
47 The corporation should seek to maximize
long run profits. 
2003 Faculty 51 41 5 3 1 269
1989 Faculty N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
30 To what extent are ethical standards influenced
by peer group pressures?
2003 Faculty 23 64 8 5 1 252
1989 Faculty 47 47 2 3 1 439
 
31 To what extent are ethical standards influenced
by prevailing industry practice?
2003 Faculty 26 65 6 3 0 252
1989 Faculty 32 58 4 6 0 440
32 To what extent are ethical standards influenced
by perceived preference of top executives?
2003 Faculty 33 56 8 3 0 253
1989 Faculty 49 43 4 3 0 437
 
33 To what extent are ethical standards influenced
by family experiences? 
2003 Faculty 11 61 14 12 1 254
1989 Faculty 42 41 7 9 1 440
 
34 To what extent are ethical standards influenced
by church experiences?
2003 Faculty 8 51 21 17 3 254
1989 Faculty 26 44 10 16 3 440
 
35 To what extent are ethical standards influenced
by your educational experiences? 
2003 Faculty 8 65 14 12 1 254
1989 Faculty 14 51 9 23 2 440
 
36 To what extent are ethical standards influenced
by company's ethical code or policy?
2003 Faculty 11 64 13 10 2 254
1989 Faculty 22 54 6 16 1 439
 
37 To what extent are ethical standards influenced
by professional ethical code?
2003 Faculty 15 63 11 10 2 254
1989 Faculty 24 52 5 17 1 440
 
38 To what extent are ethical standards influenced
by society's moral climate? 
2003 Faculty 20 60 11 8 1 255
1989 Faculty 26 52 7 13 1 439

Source:                  2003 Study of Ethics