SECTION 11:

 

FOCUS ON STUDENTS

 

FOR TWO YEARS

 

 

 

SECTION 11:

 

FOCUS ON STUDENTS

FOR ALL YEARS

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

In this section, the focus is only on the students for two years.  Table 11A presents a summary version of the information for each of the 47 attitudinal questions.  For each question, the percent that agreed with each statement is given.  In addition, the average response (low is positive) and the standard deviation for each question are provided.  The number of responses completes the information for each group for each question.  Questions 30 to 38 are given at the end of the table since their answers should have reflected “to what extent” instead of a SA to SD perspective.  See Table 11B for a clearer understanding of these questions.  Table 11B gives the percentage of respondents who either Strongly Agreed, Agree, gave No Opinion, Disagreed or Strongly Disagreed for each question. 

 

 

 

ANALYSIS

 

 

 One can examine the differences in the actual responses in these two tables depending upon his or her interest in the particular question and/or group.  A detailed analysis of the information in this section is beyond the scope of the project.

 

 

TABLE 11A.     FOR EACH OF THE TWO STUDIES, PERCENT OF THE STUDENTS
                            AGREEING
WITH EACH STATEMENT   (1=SA;  5=SD)
Q# QUESTION Year Type % Agree Mean Std. Dev. n=
1 The corporation has a responsibility to take the lead in solving major social problems such as pollution, discrimination, and safety. 2003 Students 77% 2.2 0.9 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
 
2 The corporation has a responsibility to not become involved in solving social problems unless doing so becomes a cost of doing business or the opportunity to earn a profit. 2003 Students 25% 3.4 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
 
3 The corporation has the responsibility to get involved in social responsibility projects because outside pressures make such  an involvement a cost of doing business. 2003 Students 60% 2.5 0.9 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
 
4 The corporation has a responsibility to promote equal opportunity in hiring and promotion. 2003 Students 93% 1.5 0.8 1009
1995 Students NI 1.7 0.7 191
 
5 The corporation has a responsibility to promote conservation of energy even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Students 66% 2.3 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI 1.9 0.8 191
 
6 The corporation has a responsibility to conserve natural resources, even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Students 72% 2.2 0.9 1009
1995 Students NI 1.9 0.7 191
 
7 The corporation has a responsibility to clean up or avoid causing air, noise, and water pollution even if doing so means a reduction in profits. 2003 Students 83% 1.9 0.8 1009
1995 Students NI 1.6 0.6 191
 
8 The corporation has a responsibility to contribute money and management time to civic activities in communities where the firm has plants or offices. 2003 Students 73% 2.2 0.9 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
 
9 The corporation has a responsibility to help minority owned businesses. 2003 Students 30% 3.0 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
 
10 The corporation has a responsibility to be truthful in advertising. 2003 Students 94% 1.5 0.7 1009
1995 Students NI 1.7 0.6 191
 
11 The typical business executive has two sets of ethical standards, one which he/she applies to business activities and another which is applied to his/her private life. 2003 Students 60% 2.6 1.2 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
 
12 Ethical standards in business are lower than in government. 2003 Students 20% 3.4 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
 
13 Ethical standards in business are lower than in most religious organizations. 2003 Students 55% 2.6 1.1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
 
14 Ethical standards in business are lower than in the typical American family. 2003 Students 46% 2.8 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI 2.8 0.9 191
 
15 The ethical standards used in business are as high as those practiced with family and friends. 2003 Students 24% 3.3 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI 2.3 1.0 191
 
16 Occasionally, business people make decisions that are right for business but which are inconsistent with their personal ethical principles. 2003 Students 24% 3.3 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI 2.3 1.0 191
 
17 Much advertising done by business is misleading to the consumer. 2003 Students 60% 2.5 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
  
18 Effective advertising may have to be somewhat misleading.   2003 Students 36% 3.2 1.1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
 
19 It is in the long run self-interest of business to protect the customer. 2003 Students 76% 2.1 0.9 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
 
20 The average customer is less ethical in dealing with business than the business is in dealing with that customer. 2003 Students 31% 3.1 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
 
21 No employee should be required to engage in business practices that employee considers unethical. 2003 Students 84% 1.8 0.9 1009
1995 Students NI 1.8 0.8 191
 
22 In accepting an employment offer each employee implicitly agrees to abide by the ethical standards of the employer, even if the company standards differ from those of the employee. 2003 Students 55% 2.7 1.1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
 
23 Wages and salaries should vary according to an employee’s productivity.  2003 Students 84% 1.9 0.8 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
 
24 Wages and salaries should vary according to both the employee’s productivity and years of service with the firm. 2003 Students 81% 2.1 0.9 1009
1995 Students NI 2.0 0.8 191
 
25 Wages and salaries should vary primarily with the employee's years of service with the firm. 2003 Students 36% 3.1 1.1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
 
26 Labor unions serve a useful purpose by prodding a particular management into fulfilling its responsibilities to labor. 2003 Students 47% 2.8 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
  
27 The corporation should seek to maximize short run profits. 2003 Students 34% 3.1 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
 
28 The corporation should seek to earn a satisfactory rate of return for stockholders. 2003 Students 83% 2.1 0.7 1009
1995 Students NI 2.0 0.6 191
 
29 The ethical standards in competition are determined by the least ethical competitor.  If one firm engages in unethical conduct, the others will have to follow to survive. 2003 Students 20% 3.6 1.1 1009
1995 Students NI 3.5 1.1 191
 
39 All institutions in our society should seek to protect and promote the interests of individuals. 2003 Students 63% 2.4 1.0 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
 
40 Individual freedom may have to be partly restricted in order for organizations to effectively function. 2003 Students 50% 2.8 1.1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
 
41 Government should redistribute income in order to assure a minimum standard of living for all citizens. 2003 Students 28% 3.4 1.2 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI 191
 
42 Government should provide incentives for business to get involved in solving social problems.  2003 Students 71% 2.3 0.9 1009
1995 Students NI 2.0 0.8 191
  
43 Truth in lending regulations are needed to protect the customer. 2003 Students 75% 2.1 0.7 1009
1995 Students NI 1.8 0.7 191
 
44 Antitrust laws prohibiting price fixing benefit the customer.  2003 Students 67% 2.2 0.8 1009
1995 Students NI 1.9 0.8 191
 
45 Lazy or incompetent employees should be fired. 2003 Students 82% 1.9 0.9 1009
1995 Students NI 2.3 1.0 191
 
46 A company should have formal policies to guarantee that every employee has an equal opportunity for promotion, pay increases, and other rewards provided by the firm. 2003 Students 88% 1.7 0.8 1009
1995 Students NI 1.8 0.8 191
 
47 The corporation should seek to maximize long run profits.  2003 Students 88% 1.7 0.7 1009
1995 Students NI 1.8 0.6 191
 
30 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by peer group pressures? 2003 Students 75% 2.2 0.9 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
31 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by prevailing industry practice? 2003 Students 87% 2.0 0.7 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
32 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by perceived preference of top executives? 2003 Students 86% 1.9 0.8 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
33 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by family experiences?  2003 Students 58% 2.6 1.0 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
34 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by church experiences? 2003 Students 43% 2.9 1.0 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
35 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by your educational experiences?  2003 Students 78% 2.2 0.8 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
36 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by company's ethical code or policy? 2003 Students 80% 2.1 0.8 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
37 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by professional ethical code? 2003 Students 84% 2.1 0.8 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
38 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by society's moral climate?  2003 Students 71% 2.3 0.9 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A
                Source:                  2003 Study of Ethics

 

 

TABLE 11B.       FOR EACH OF THE TWO STUDIES, PERCENT OF THE STUDENTS PROVIDING THEIR
                                 DEGREE OF AGREEMENT WITH EACH STATEMENT (1=SA;  5=SD)
Q# QUESTION Year Type %SA %A %NO %D %SD n=
   1 The corporation has a responsibility to take the lead in solving
major social problems such as pollution, discrimination, and safety.
2003 Students 23 54 11 11 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
   2 The corporation has a responsibility to not become involved in
solving social problems unless doing so becomes a cost of doing
business or the opportunity to earn a profit.
2003 Students 3 22 20 45 10 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
   3 The corporation has the responsibility to get involved in social
responsibility projects because outside pressures make such 
an involvement a cost of doing business.
2003 Students 7 53 25 13 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
   4 The corporation has a responsibility to promote equal opportunity
in hiring and promotion.
2003 Students 64 29 4 2 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
   5 The corporation has a responsibility to promote conservation of
energy even if doing so means a reduction in profits.
2003 Students 20 46 19 14 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
   6 The corporation has a responsibility to conserve natural resources,
even if doing so means a reduction in profits.
2003 Students 23 49 17 11 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
   7 The corporation has a responsibility to clean up or avoid causing air,
noise, and water pollution even if doing so means a reduction in profits.
2003 Students 30 53 10 6 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
   8 The corporation has a responsibility to contribute money and
management time to civic activities in communities where the
firm has plants or offices.
2003 Students 19 54 17 8 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
  
   9 The corporation has a responsibility to help minority owned
businesses.
2003 Students 8 22 39 24 7 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
10 The corporation has a responsibility to be truthful in advertising. 2003 Students 59 35 4 1 0 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
11 The typical business executive has two sets of ethical standards, one which he/she applies to business activities and another which is applied to his/her private life. 2003 Students 16 44 13 21 6 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
12 Ethical standards in business are lower than in government. 2003 Students 3 17 28 44 9 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
13 Ethical standards in business are lower than in most religious organizations. 2003 Students 15 40 23 18 4 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
14 Ethical standards in business are lower than in the typical American family. 2003 Students 8 38 28 24 3 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
15 The ethical standards used in business are as high as those practiced with family and friends. 2003 Students 5 19 24 46 7 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
16 Occasionally, business people make decisions that are right for business but which are inconsistent with their personal ethical principles. 2003 Students 17 72 7 4 0 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
17 Much advertising done by business is misleading to the consumer. 2003 Students 10 50 17 22 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
18 Effective advertising may have to be somewhat misleading.   2003 Students 4 32 14 42 9 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
19 It is in the long run self-interest of business to protect the customer. 2003 Students 26 50 13 10 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
20 The average customer is less ethical in dealing with business than the business is in dealing with that customer. 2003 Students 5 26 29 37 4 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
21 No employee should be required to engage in business practices that employee considers unethical. 2003 Students 41 43 8 7 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
22 In accepting an employment offer each employee implicitly agrees to abide by the ethical standards of the employer, even if the company standards differ from those of the employee. 2003 Students 10 45 18 24 4 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
23 Wages and salaries should vary according to an employee’s productivity.  2003 Students 30 54 9 6 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
24 Wages and salaries should vary according to both the employee’s productivity and years of service with the firm. 2003 Students 25 56 9 9 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
25 Wages and salaries should vary primarily with the employee's years of service with the firm. 2003 Students 6 30 18 40 7 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
26 Labor unions serve a useful purpose by prodding a particular management into fulfilling its responsibilities to labor. 2003 Students 5 42 30 16 7 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
27 The corporation should seek to maximize short run profits. 2003 Students 3 31 28 33 5 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
28 The corporation should seek to earn a satisfactory rate of return for stockholders. 2003 Students 14 69 12 4 0 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
29 The ethical standards in competition are determined by the least ethical competitor.  If one firm engages in unethical conduct, the others will have to follow to survive. 2003 Students 4 16 17 43 19 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
39 All institutions in our society should seek to protect and promote the interests of individuals. 2003 Students 15 48 18 18 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
40 Individual freedom may have to be partly restricted in order for organizations to effectively function. 2003 Students 6 44 18 26 6 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
41 Government should redistribute income in order to assure a minimum standard of living for all citizens. 2003 Students 6 22 22 30 20 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
42 Government should provide incentives for business to get involved in solving social problems.  2003 Students 16 55 15 11 3 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
43 Truth in lending regulations is needed to protect the customer. 2003 Students 17 58 22 3 0 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
44 Antitrust laws prohibiting price fixing benefit the customer.  2003 Students 19 48 26 5 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
45 Lazy or incompetent employees should be fired. 2003 Students 39 43 12 5 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
46 A company should have formal policies to guarantee that every employee has an equal opportunity for promotion, pay increases, and other rewards provided by the firm. 2003 Students 44 44 8 3 1 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
47 The corporation should seek to maximize long run profits.  2003 Students 45 43 10 1 0 1009
1995 Students NI NI NI NI NI 191
 
30 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by peer group pressures? 2003 Students 13 62 14 10 2 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
31 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by prevailing industry practice? 2003 Students 20 67 9 4 0 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
32 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by perceived preference of top executives? 2003 Students 29 57 10 4 1 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
33 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by family experiences?  2003 Students 11 47 20 21 1 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
34 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by church experiences? 2003 Students 8 35 26 27 4 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
35 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by your educational experiences?  2003 Students 14 64 12 9 1 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
36 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by company's ethical code or policy? 2003 Students 19 61 12 7 1 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
37 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by professional ethical code? 2003 Students 19 65 9 6 1 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 
38 To what extent are ethical standards influenced by society's moral climate? 2003 Students 14 57 16 12 2 1004
1995 Students N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Source:                  2003 Study of Ethics